• Factors Influencing Broadcast Seeding in Bunchgrass Range

      Nelson, J. R.; Wilson, A. M.; Goebel, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      The objective of this work was to evaluate problems of broadcast seeding perennial grasses on steep or rocky rangelands that cannot be seeded by conventional methods. Depredation of seeds by rodents and birds limited the effectiveness of broadcast seedings but not of drilled seedings. Drilled seeds remained in relatively constant and favorable soil moisture, and carried on metabolic processes rapidly and without interruption. Broadcast seeds were exposed to rapidly fluctuating moisture conditions which resulted in the frequent starting and stopping of germination processes. In drilled seedings, seven perennial grasses gave good seedling stands. In broadcast seedings, Sherman big bluegrass (Poa ampla) gave the best seedling stands. Ineffectiveness in controlling cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other competing species was the main obstacle to seedling establishment. Successful establishment of seeded grasses appeared to be related to rate of penetration of seedling roots.
    • Fall Gains of Steers Fed Cottonseed Cake on Shortgrass Range

      Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Cottonseed cake, fed to steers in the fall, increased the efficiency of forage utilization but did not produce sufficient additional gain on shortgrass range to be economically feasible.
    • Grazing Habits, Diet and Performance of Sheep on Alpine Ranges

      Strasia, C. A.; Thorn, M.; Rice, R. W.; Smith, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      An Alpine range, average elevation 3,200m, was divided. One portion was fenced and sheep were allowed to graze it freely, the other was managed by a herder. The grazing season was for 60 days during July and August. Diet samples for botanical analyses were collected by esophageal fistulated sheep. Generally the grazing behavior of the free sheep was similar to the herded group except that the band was somewhat more loosely organized in the absence of a herder. Nitrogen and in vitro digestibility of diet samples were slightly lower and fiber and cellulose slightly higher from the free grazed sheep. There were no differences in the botanical composition of diet samples from the two groups. The sheep ate more forbs early in the grazing period. They were more selective in choice of grass and sedge species than in choice of forb species eaten. There were no differences in lamb gains during the grazing period.
    • Growing Deer Food Amidst Southern Timber

      Halls, L. K. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      In addition to growing timber, pine-hardwood forests of the South produce food for white-tailed deer. The food yields, and thus deer populations, are governed by timber stand density, frequency of timber cuttings, size and distribution of harvest cutting units, and application of prescribed burning.
    • Improved Folding Utilization Cages

      Frischknecht, Neil C.; Conrad, Paul W.; Hansen, Paul E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Describes an improved model of folding cage that has proved durable on cattle ranges, and suggests ways to simplify construction.
    • Infiltration and Soil Erosion as Influenced by Vegetation and Soil in Northern Utah

      Meeuwig, R. O. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      The influences of vegetation, soil properties, and slope gradient on infiltration capacity and soil stability of high-elevation herbland on the Wasatch Front in northern Utah were investigated under simulated rainfall conditions. Results emphasize the importance of vegetation and litter cover in maintaining infiltration capacity and soil stability. Infiltration is also affected significantly by soil properties, notably bulk density, aggregation, and moisture content.
    • Jupiter Root Competition Reduces Basal Area of Blue Grama

      Jameson, Donald A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Juniper root competition reduces the basal area of blue grama, but the effect is small enough that careful control of experimental error is necessary to detect the difference.
    • Response of Understory Vegetation to Ponderosa Pine Thinning in Eastern Washington

      McConnell, B. R.; Smith, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Pine thinning caused highly significant increases in understory vegetation. After eight growing seasons, total understory yield increments ranged from 75 lb/acre on the unthinned plots to 417 lb under 26-foot pine spacing. The increase comprised 51% grasses, 37% forbs, and 12% shrubs. When pine canopy exceeded about 45%, forbs produced more than grasses; below 45%, grasses were superior producers. Shrubs were the least productive at all levels.
    • Significance of Reduced Plant Vigor in Relation to Range Condition

      Bjugstad, A. J.; Whitman, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      In Southwestern North Dakota, forage yields were much higher on ranges in excellent than on those in good condition; differences in forage yields between ranges in good and those in fair condition were smaller. Reduced yields were due mainly to reduced vigor of midgrasses, as reflected by plant height, and not to loss of plants.
    • Soil Ridging for Reduction of Wind Erosion from Grass Seedbeds

      Marlatt, W. E.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      In the wind tunnel, styrofoam ridges 2 inches high and 12 inches apart reduced wind velocities as much as 90% below the free wind velocity. In the field, ridging of a sandy loam soil by packing with a heavy packer wheel prevented wind erosion from the modified seedbed. High-intensity rain and hail can eliminate the ridges.
    • Sweetclover as a Range Legume

      Miles, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Sweetclover grows among native grasses and supplies nitrogen and phosphate. Sweetclover has been increased on the ranch by managing for seed set, for seedling establishment and by introducing it into new areas. Seed set is favored by grazing off the heavy second year growth to conserve moisture for seed production. Seeding establishment is favored by spring grazing that reduces competition. The ability to reseed itself has been found to be limited to south facing slopes. The sweetclover provides nitrogen and extracts phosphate from the soil for its large growth; the fertility remains to fertilize the grasses.
    • Water Use in Relation to Management of Blue Panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.)

      Wright, L. N.; Dobrenz, A. K. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Efficiency of water use was determined for blue panic-grass grown in the field. Management treatments were soil-moisture stress, clipping height, and maturity stage. Water-use efficiency was expressed as the number of units (kg) of water per unit (kg) of forage dry-weight produced. Blue panicgrass showed a relatively broad tolerance to high soil-moisture stress. Efficient use of water and root weight decreased when soil-moisture stress was increased, while dry-weight of forage was unchanged. The 30-cm clipping height, when the majority of seed heads emerged from the boot, was most efficient in water use; gave the highest production of forage; produced the highest percentage protein; and produced the most roots. Two noteworthy findings were: a) the most efficient use of water and the highest forage production were obtained from the same management; and b) the highest protein percentage and the highest forage production were obtained from this same management. This performance of blue panicgrass where highest production of forage, highest percentage of protein, and most efficient use of water is contrary to the performance of some crops, because these responses rarely occur for the same management.