• Response of Understory Vegetation to Ponderosa Pine Thinning in Eastern Washington

      McConnell, B. R.; Smith, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Pine thinning caused highly significant increases in understory vegetation. After eight growing seasons, total understory yield increments ranged from 75 lb/acre on the unthinned plots to 417 lb under 26-foot pine spacing. The increase comprised 51% grasses, 37% forbs, and 12% shrubs. When pine canopy exceeded about 45%, forbs produced more than grasses; below 45%, grasses were superior producers. Shrubs were the least productive at all levels.
    • Significance of Reduced Plant Vigor in Relation to Range Condition

      Bjugstad, A. J.; Whitman, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      In Southwestern North Dakota, forage yields were much higher on ranges in excellent than on those in good condition; differences in forage yields between ranges in good and those in fair condition were smaller. Reduced yields were due mainly to reduced vigor of midgrasses, as reflected by plant height, and not to loss of plants.
    • Soil Ridging for Reduction of Wind Erosion from Grass Seedbeds

      Marlatt, W. E.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      In the wind tunnel, styrofoam ridges 2 inches high and 12 inches apart reduced wind velocities as much as 90% below the free wind velocity. In the field, ridging of a sandy loam soil by packing with a heavy packer wheel prevented wind erosion from the modified seedbed. High-intensity rain and hail can eliminate the ridges.
    • Sweetclover as a Range Legume

      Miles, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Sweetclover grows among native grasses and supplies nitrogen and phosphate. Sweetclover has been increased on the ranch by managing for seed set, for seedling establishment and by introducing it into new areas. Seed set is favored by grazing off the heavy second year growth to conserve moisture for seed production. Seeding establishment is favored by spring grazing that reduces competition. The ability to reseed itself has been found to be limited to south facing slopes. The sweetclover provides nitrogen and extracts phosphate from the soil for its large growth; the fertility remains to fertilize the grasses.
    • Water Use in Relation to Management of Blue Panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.)

      Wright, L. N.; Dobrenz, A. K. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Efficiency of water use was determined for blue panic-grass grown in the field. Management treatments were soil-moisture stress, clipping height, and maturity stage. Water-use efficiency was expressed as the number of units (kg) of water per unit (kg) of forage dry-weight produced. Blue panicgrass showed a relatively broad tolerance to high soil-moisture stress. Efficient use of water and root weight decreased when soil-moisture stress was increased, while dry-weight of forage was unchanged. The 30-cm clipping height, when the majority of seed heads emerged from the boot, was most efficient in water use; gave the highest production of forage; produced the highest percentage protein; and produced the most roots. Two noteworthy findings were: a) the most efficient use of water and the highest forage production were obtained from the same management; and b) the highest protein percentage and the highest forage production were obtained from this same management. This performance of blue panicgrass where highest production of forage, highest percentage of protein, and most efficient use of water is contrary to the performance of some crops, because these responses rarely occur for the same management.