• A Spring-Actuated Maximum Temperature Indicator

      Fowler, W. B. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Studies of range restoration problems required determination of seasonal variation of maximum air temperatures near the soil surface. More accurate sampling of this important environmental factor is now possible with responsive, easily read, maximum temperature indicators, operating between 38 and 62 C.
    • Brush Control on Forest-Rangelands in East Texas

      Meyer, R. E.; Morton, H. L.; Merkle, M. G.; Bovey, R. W.; Davis, F. S. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Herbicides were applied by a truck-mounted sprayer and airplane to stands of mixed brush in East Texas. Mixtures of 2,4,5-T + picloram gave the best brush control. Picloram was the best individual chemical but failed to kill white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), saw greenbriar (Smilax bona-nox L.) and redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) Picoloram only partially controlled American holly (Ilex opaca Ait.), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), oaks (Quercus spp.), and yaupon (Ilex vomitoria Ait.). Dicamba, isocil, bromacil, and mixtures of 2,4,5-T had intermediate activity. Paraquat and diquat were least effective for killing woody species. Dense grass stands occurred within 2 years after treatment where the brush had been controlled.
    • Burning Bluestem Range

      Anderson, K. L.; Smith, E. F.; Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      The effect of time of burning on weight gains of steers, botanical composition, herbage yield, and soil moisture relations were investigated over seventeen years. Time of burning in relation to period of growth was important in the reaction of individual species. Cool-season species were reduced by spring burning and the desirable warm-season species were favored. Fire also favored some weedy species which had phenology similar to the desirable warm-season grasses. Herbage yields were reduced by early and mid spring burning but remained the same as unburned when late spring burning was applied. Gains on steers were greatest under mid and late spring burning and least under no burning and early spring burning. Higher gains on steers mid and late spring burned pastures came early in the growing season.
    • Creeping Bluestem (Andropogon stolonifer (Nash) Hitchc.)

      Yarlett, L. L.; Roush, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Creeping bluestem (Andropogon stolonifer (Nash) Hitchc.) is an important perennial native bluestem widely distributed on ranges and grazeable woodlands in Florida and southeast Georgia. Major growth occurs from January to September in south Florida. Successful management and maximum production of creeping bluestem depends on how closely range management practices are coordinated with growth characteristics. Controlling saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small) by mechanical means followed by good management practices increases the production of creeping bluestem. Good and excellent condition ranges composed of creeping bluestem are invaluable to ranching operations. Greater flexibility in ranching operations are possible when creeping bluestem is the major grass on good and excellent condition ranges.
    • Effect of Reindeer Trampling and Grazing on Lichens

      Pegau, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      A herd of approximately 500 reindeer was herded over a non-utilized portion of a large Eriophorum-Carex-dwarf shrub meadow near Nome, Alaska during both moist and dry conditions. After one summer of use on approximately 17 sections by the reindeer, 68% of the lichens were dislodged and 16% were shattered into segments less than 1/2 inch. On summer ranges where lichens comprise at least 30% of the available forage, at least 15% of the lichens should be considered as unavailable because of trampling by reindeer.
    • Germination Characteristics of Range Legumes

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Kay, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      The germination of seeds of 19 legumes planted in range seeding exhibited considerable variability in initiation and total germination in relation to constant and alternating temperatures (0.5 to 30 C) and germination at 15 C and osmotic pressures of 0 to 16 bars. The rate of elongation of juvenile seedlings of most of the legumes was at a competitive disadvantage with weedy annual grasses.
    • Growth and Development of Northern Great Plains Species in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization

      Goetz, H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Four range sites were fertilized at three different rates of nitrogen. Grass and sedge species react differently to the nitrogen treatments with respect to leaf height growth and phenological development. Leaf height increases in the grasses are generally small at lower levels of nitrogen. The sagebrush (Artemisia) species increase markedly in height at all rates of nitrogen fertilization. Stalk heights in the grasses and forbs generally follow patterns of height increase similar to those of the leaves. Phenological development of plant species is variously affected by the different rates of nitrogen on different range sites. Leaf-tip drying of grasses is greater on a given date on plots with no nitrogen early in the season than on plots with nitrogen fertlizer. A reversal of this situation occurs later in the season.
    • Influence of Spring, Fall, and Spring-Fall Grazing on Crested Wheatgrass Range

      Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Grazing crested wheatgrass during spring only, fall only, and spring and fall to a 1-inch stubble height for 10 years had little effect on vegetative characteristics of the seeded stands. Invasion of the stands by other species was greater with spring or spring-fall use than with fall use. Litter decreased with all seasonal treatments, but decreased most under spring-fall use. Drought and growing-season moisture were the critical factors in determining forage yields. The spring-fall pastures produced more forage, provided more days of grazing, and gave the highest average beef production, 177 lb/season. Spring grazing was next and fall grazing the least productive for animal weight gains.
    • Needs for Soil Information in the Management of Range Resources

      Klemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      With present procedures of inventory and research, the kinds and amount of soil information needed for management of range resources is not always available, nor is the information always used when it is available. More effective use of soil information is hindered by 1) a communication gap between those who collect the information and the resource managers who should be using the information, 2) a priority system for soil survey which places more importance on standard soil surveys on a block basis than on special surveys conducted to meet the immediate needs of management, and 3) lack of a relationship between the soil survey programs and research designed to bring research results into context with land use problems.
    • Relationship Between Halogeton glomeratus Consumption and Water Intake by Sheep

      James, L. F.; Butcher, J. E.; Van Kampen, K. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      When sheep are fed diets containing sufficient halogeton to supply 3.2% oxalate in the diet, water consumption is markedly increased, and sheep consume less of the halogeton diet. When water is restricted, there is a decrease in feed intake with the decrease becoming more pronounced with continued water deprivation as compared to control sheep. An association of water deprivation and halogeton poisoning in sheep is indicated.
    • Relative Browsing of 16 Species by White-Tailed Deer

      Halls, L. K.; McCarty, J. D.; Wiant, H. V. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Among browse plants of 16 species in an east Texas pine-hardwood forest, winged elm was eaten most by white-tailed deer in spring. Alabama supplejack was palatable from spring through fall, and saw greenbrier was eaten all year. Even though they were plentiful, utilization was light for flowering dogwood, grape, poison-ivy, and rusty blackhaw. American beautyberry was browsed mainly in the fall. Yellow jessamine was eaten more than any other browse species during the winter.
    • Response of Mesquite to Season of Top Removal

      Wright, H. A.; Stinson, K. J. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Top removal reduced yields of mesquite at least 75% during all seasons of the year. May yields were the lowest. This information may be helpful for planning shredding operations, but not for planning burns.
    • Some Effects of Grazing Intensity on Bitterbrush Dispersion

      McConnell, B. R.; Smith, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Three fence-line comparisons were made to determine the effect of grazing intensity on the density and dispersion of bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC.) in a uniform habitat. Bitterbrush density was reduced by heavy grazing but was not affected by moderate use. The large increases in mean area per plant that occurred under heavy grazing did not alter the overall form of random population dispersion. In a comparison of heavy versus moderate use, inclusion of 1-year-old plants on the moderately grazed area (10% of population) caused aggregation of the population. Even though a larger number of 1-year-old plants (22% of population) occurred in the heavily grazed comparison, the population remained random. The contrasting reaction probably resulted from a differential pattern of seedling mortality due to different amounts of herbaceous understory in the two shrub populations.
    • Sources of Variation in Chemical Composition of Forage Ingested by Esophageal Fistulated Cattle

      Obioha, F. C.; Clanton, D. C.; Rittenhouse, L. R.; Street, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Esophageal fistulated cattle were used to collect samples of grazed forage. Within-day, daily and animal variation in the lignin and nitrogen contents of the forage samples were determined in ten trials during three growing seasons. Within-day differences in the nitrogen and lignin content of forage samples were not consistent. Daily and animal variation of these chemical constituents in the diet were highest when the mean content of each was highest in the forage and when a wide variety of forage species was being consumed. Summarizing all trials, sampling forage with three animals per treatment for four consecutive days permitted the detection of differences of 10% of the mean nitrogen content at the 10% level of significance with 85% confidence. More animals would be required to make precise measurements of the lignin content of the diet.
    • Temperature and Moisture Stress Affect Germination of Gutierrezia sarothrae

      Kruse, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Germination of broom snakeweed seed was found best at 60-70 F temperatures and was inversely related to moisture stress.
    • Vitamin A and B-carotene in Liver and Blood of Cows Grazing Pangolagrass

      Kirk, W. G.; Shirley, R. L.; Easley, J. F.; Peacock, F. M. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      Mature grade Brahman cows grazing pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens Stent.) from 3 to 17 years as the only source of nutrients other than common salt and red salt had an average of 2624 mcg vitamin A and 59 mcg B-carotene per gram dry liver and 46 mcg vitamin A and 1020 mcg B-carotene per 100 ml blood plasma. The liver of a 1168 pound cow had the equivalent of 16.3 million I. U. vitamin A. The cows had livers with approximately 28 times more vitamin A, and plasma 5.5 times more B-carotene than steers fed a finishing ration containing 10% yellow corn meal and 5% alfalfa meal for 140 days. Beef cows grazing well managed Florida improved pasture would obtain more than sufficient vitamin A for maintenance, reproduction, and milk production as indicated by their performance and storage of this vitamin.
    • Winter Sheep Grazing and Forage Preference in Southwestern Wyoming

      Harrison, B. J.; Thatcher, A. P. (Society for Range Management, 1970-03-01)
      A study of the grazing habits of sheep on the winter range of southwestern Wyoming showed the grass needleandthread (Stipa comata) to be the key forage species. This was true even with a snow cover of 8 inches. Other grass species also contributed a large amount to the sheep diet. Low rabbitbrush (Crysothamnus viscidiflorus) was the most preferred shrub species. Very little use was made of the other shrub species.