• Use of Equations to Predict the Nutritive Value of Tropical Grasses

      Butterworth, M. H.; Diaz L., J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Literature values for the digestibility of tropical grass species were used to compute equations to predict apparent digestibility of crude protein and total digestible nutrients from proximate analyses. It was found that effective predictions could be obtained for the apparent digestibility of crude protein and that values varied considerably among individual grass species. Large differences were not found either among methods of preparation (i.e. silage, hay, fresh material) nor among species of animal used. The equations for TDN accounted for a minor part of the total variation and were of little value for prediction. The results are discussed in relation to the hypotheses underlying the various criteria used in the determinations.
    • Trampling Losses and Travel by Cattle on Sandhills Range

      Quinn, J. A.; Hervey, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Trampling losses by cattle on sandhills range varied from about 1% of the grass herbage or 20 pounds per acre under light grazing to 5% or 60 pounds per acre with heavy grazing. The various sandhill grasses differed in their susceptibility to trampling in July and September. In lightly grazed 50-acre pastures, yearling cattle averaged 1.5 miles of travel per day compared to 2.0 in moderate and heavily grazed pastures.
    • Tundra Ranges North of the Boreal Forest

      Klein, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Tundra rangelands of Alaska and northern Canada occupy about 200,000 and 900,000 square miles respectively. The tundra supports far lower numbers of large grazers than other natural areas, averaging less than 100 lb per square mile. Forage quality of tundra plants is high because of rapid growth and wide variation in seasonal progression of growth. The native grazers, caribou and muskoxen, have evolved rapid growth rates and selectively feed on the highest quality forage available. Wild populations of caribou and muskoxen appear to offer the best potential for conversion of tundra vegetation into commodities utilizable by man.
    • Subterranean Vetch Seed Enhances Persistence Under Grazing and Severe Climates

      Alinoglu, N.; Durlu, N. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Subterranean vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. amphicarpa) grows widely in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. This variety was grown to determine biological characteristics and adaptation for persistence under heavy grazing. Both aerial and subterranean stems were produced and subterranean seed were larger than aerial seed. Delayed germination enables survival of the species where the climatic conditions are severe.
    • Site Factor Relationships with Volatile Oils in Big Sagebrush

      Powell, J. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      The volatile oil content in big sagebrush leaves varied greatly on different sites, ranging form 3.5% of the air-dry weight in short plants on poor sites to 6.0% in tall plants on favorable sites. A regression equation using selected site factors accounted for 91% of the variation in oil content. Oil content was most highly correlated with sagebrush size and the amounts of magnesium and phosphorus in the A horizon. Short big sagebrush plants on poor sites should be maintained as forage plants, but tall big sagebrush plants on favorable sites should be replaced with other more palatable species. Chemicals which can reduce or retard volatile oil production should be studied.
    • Rotating Access to Water to Improve Semidesert Cattle Range Near Water

      Martin, S. C.; Ward, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Seasonal opening and closing of watering places in a 3,200-acre pasture on the Santa Rita Experimental Range in Arizona resulted in lighter use of percnnial grasses near water if utilization for the pasture was moderate to light, and if the closed period included the summer growing season. Rotating use of watering places should work best in large range units with waters far apart.
    • Response of Big Sagebrush and Three-tip Sagebrush to Season of Clipping

      Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      An 80% clipping treatment reduced yields of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) most when applied during July, moderately when applied during spring, and least when applied during late summer through winter months. Three-tip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita) responded similarly during July, but it was most tolerant to clipping during April and May. During the fall and winter months, three-tip sagebrush appears less tolerant to clipping than big sagebrush.
    • Partial Budgeting for a Range Man

      Jeffries, Ned W.; Quenemoen, M. E.; Bucher, Robert F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      The information for making economic evaluations of range practices often is available but is seldom used. Partial budgeting is a brief method for analyzing the potential economic returns of alternative range practices. This procedure is suitable for field use by ranchers or range technicians.
    • Longevity of Velvet Mesquite Seed in the Soil

      Martin, S. Clark (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      One velvet mesquite seed out of 450 that were buried in 1948 on the Santa Rita Experimental Range was sound and germinated after it was dug up 20 years later. The percentage of apparently sound seeds declined fairly rapidly as seeds germinated or decayed (only 10% were sound after 10 years), but viability of the apparently sound seed remained high to the end of the study. Thus, even if no new seed is produced or introduced, some mesquite seedlings may emerge 20 years or more after clearing.
    • Ground Markers Aid in Procurement and Interpretation of Large-Scale 70 MM Aerial Photography

      Francis, Richard E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Butcher paper, surveyor stakes, lath strips, plastic letter-number codes, paper plates, and drop-panel markers were all useful for marking range ground features, providing strict flight-line control, and interpreting resultant aerial photographs. All markers were both highly detectable and resolvable at the largest scale of 1:600. All markers remained visible, yet some became less resolvable, at the smaller scales of 1:2400 and 1:4600.
    • Grazing Systems: Terms and Definitions

      Heady, H. F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Differences in definition of terms, results obtained from grazing systems, and in viewpoints continue to exist on the usefulness of grazing systems. Reasons for confusion include: 1) Many range management practices are grouped under the term "grazing system." 2) It is used to describe the day to day provisions of livestock feed from a wide variety of sources as well as seasonal patterns of grazing. 3) Designs of grazing systems have been extended to areas where they do not apply. 4) Practice and research have given different results. Several definitions are proposed for clarification.
    • Effects of Temperature and Daylength on Axillary Bud and Tiller Development in Blue Grama

      Stubbendieck, J.; Burzlaff, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      A study was conducted to determine the nature of tiller development and the influence of light and temperature on growth and development of the axillary buds and tillers of blue grama. An axillary bud, enclosed in a prophyllum was found at each node of the culm. The development of the axillary bud into a tiller is a function of temperature. Controlled increase of temperatures in early spring increased the rate of axillary bud and tiller development in blue grama. The data also indicate that controlled reduction in length of photoperiod decreased the growth of axillary buds and development of tillers.
    • Curing Standing Range Forage with Herbicides

      Kay, B. L.; Torell, T. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Paraquat applied to standing annual range forage at anthesis of the grasses resulted in standing hay 57 to 77% higher in protein. Crude fiber was decreased and phosphorus increased. Forage production was generally lower with treatment, because the growing season was shorter. Palatability of dry forage was improved. Lambs on treated forage gained more rapidly. No physiological or pathological changes were found in the lambs. Spraying resulted in less grass and more clover in the year following spraying.
    • Control Huisache and Associated Woody Species in South Texas

      Bovey, R. W.; Baur, J. R.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Picloram effectively controlled huisache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) when applied in May, June, July and October. It was more effective than several other herbicides at comparable dosages. Mixtures of picloram + 2,4,5-T were effective on huisache in spring and fall applications. Picloram rates could be reduced by adding comparable amounts of 2,4,5-T. Several herbicides, including 2,4,5-T, effectively controlled mesquite in April, May and June. Herbicides applied at other dates were usually ineffective. Aerial applications of picloram and mixtures of picloram + 2,4,5-T in the fall controlled huisache, blackbrush (Acacia rigidula Benth.), and several other woody species, but were ineffective on such species as Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana Scheele), wolfberry (Lycium berlandieri Dunal), and algerita (Berberis trifoliolata Moric.).
    • Changes in Crested Wheatgrass Ranges Under Different Grazing Treatments

      Robertson, J. H.; Neal, D. L.; McAdams, K. R.; Tueller, P. T. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Crested wheatgrass on three dissimilar sites in Nevada was grazed by cattle on seven schedules over the first 10 years of grazing. Quick utilization was achieved by heavy stocking. Trend in range condition was inferred from reaction of grass, sagebrush and rabbitbrush based upon measurements of crown area, shrub densities, grass yields, seedling establishment and loop transect data. Climatic variations, site quality, initial density of grass stand, insects and rodents influenced the trend in condition associated with grazing treatments. Season of utilization influenced trend much more than did grazing intensity.
    • Carbohydrate Reserve Content of Mountain Range Plants Following Defoliation and Regrowth

      Donart, G. B.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Following the establishment of a curve for carbohydrate reserve levels in the roots of six native range plants in relation to phenological development, the effect of heavy clipping at the time of carbohydrate low and carbohydrate high was studied. The carbohydrate reserves in all species except senecio were significantly affected by defoliation treatment. Results indicated that defoliation of grasses and forbs early in the season was more detrimental than defoliation late in the season, but defoliation of browse late in the season appeared to lower reserves more than early defoliation.
    • Cattle Grazing Management on Pine-Wiregrass Range

      Hughes, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      Wiregrass forage growing in developing pine stands may be grazed by cattle if certain precautions are taken to prevent trampling and browsing of the trees. Grazing pressure on pine seedlings may be reduced by providing adequate amounts of native and improved forage during the summer and by wintering cattle off the range. With combinations involving unburned range and young pine, cows averaged 84% calf crops with calves weighing 435 lb at 8 months old. Beneath older trees on burned range, calf crops were 86% with calves weighing 465 lb.
    • A History of the Rangelands of Western Canada

      Johnston, A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      In western Canada, the grass-buffalo economy of the Indian was replaced by the wheat-cattle economy of the white man, and the Red River cart and boat brigades of the fur trade by the railways and highways of modern times. Ranching was part of the development but its heyday lasted only from about 1885 to 1905.