• A Field Test of the Relative-Weight-Estimate Method for Determining Herbage Production

      Hutchings, S. S.; Schmautz, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Reliable estimates of total herbage yield can be made by the relative-weight-estimate method. The method is based on the concept that it is easier and more accurate to estimate herbage yield as a percent of yield from a base plot than it is to estimate yields directly in grams or pounds. Estimates of total herbage are reasonably accurate, but they are less accurate for vegetation classes of grasses, forbs, and shrubs and for individual species. This method generally contains an inherent bias that cannot be detected unless a double-sampling procedure is used to check and correct field estimates.
    • Are We Going to Be The Last to Convert?

      McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
    • Carbohydrate Reserves of Six Mountain Range Plants as Related to Growth

      Donart, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      The total available carbohydrate reserves of six native mountain range plants were studied through a growing cycle. The reserves showed somewhat similar trends as plants advanced in growth during their annual cycle. Minimum root reserves were reached during the early spring after producing approximately 15 percent of their annual growth. Maximum reserves were reached at or near flowering. The average level of root reserves at any one period varied widely among species, however.
    • Composition and Yields of Native Grassland Sites Fertilized at Different Rates of Nitrogen

      Goetz, H. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Four range sites were fertilized at three different rates of nitrogen (33, 67, and 100 pounds nitrogen per acre) in southwestern North Dakota. Increasing the production of a range site with nitrogen fertilization is closely associated with the inherent production potential of the site. In general, greatest increases in total dry-matter yields for a given increment of fertilizer were observed at the 67-pound nitrogen application. Total basal cover was reduced by fertilization on the Vebar and Havre sites but increased on the Rhodes and Manning sites. In general, reduction in total cover was due to a decrease in cover of the blue grama grass. An increase in cover and density of western wheatgrass and the sage species was generally observed on all sites.
    • Ecological Effect of a Clay Soil's Structure on Some Native Grass Roots

      White, E. M.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Dense Clay Range soils have larger structure peds or groups of smaller peds in the upper part of the soil when moisture is at the wilting point than do Clayey Range soils of the same moisture and clay content. Large peds, which are bordered by cracks when dry, apparently constrict roots as they dry and hold the roots so that they are stretched across the bordering cracks. Blue grama and buffalograss grow on the Clayey Range soils and have a fine, spreading root system near the soil surface. However, these grasses do not grow on Dense Clay Range soils where presumably their fine roots are not strong enough to withstand the constricting and stretching forces. Western wheatgrass and green needlegrass have larger, more deeply placed roots which are more vertically oriented than the short grasses and are able to utilize subsoil moisture and grow on the Dense Clay soils.
    • Effect of Burning on Tobosa Grass

      Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      During a wet year tobosa produced more herbage on burned plots than on unburned plots at five locations. Ash from the burns had a slight fertilizing effect, but removal of litter stimulated production more than any other factor. Based on this data, fire can be used as a tool to control mesquite without harming tobosa.
    • Effect of Fertilizer on Pinegrass in Southern British Columbia

      Freyman, S.; van Ryswyk, A. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Response to fertilizers of pinegrass dominated vegetation on Gray Wooded soils was tested in pot and field trials. Ammonium nitrate applied at 100 and 200 kg N/ha increased the yield, nutritive value, and palatability of pinegrass; this increase was accentuated when S in the form of gypsum was applied with N. Response to P, K, and a solution of micro nutrients was negligible. Most of the applied S and all of the applied N were depleted from the upper root zone by the end of the second growing season. At the higher rates of application, only 14% of the N was recovered by pinegrass. This value was even smaller at the lower rates of application. Sulfur considerably improved the ability of pinegrass to respond to N fertilization and 23% of the N was recovered when 100 Kg S/ha was applied with the N. Soils were analyzed for NO3-N, SO4-S, field moisture and organic C. These two elements and organic C were found to be mainly concentrated near the soil surface, which experienced the greatest fluctuation in moisture content.
    • Effects of Grazing on a Hardland Site in the Southern High Plains

      Brown, J. W.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      The vegetation and soil characteristics of an ungrazed butte are compared with those of a similar site on an adjacent High Plains area. Woody plant cover was greater and more diverse on the butte while herbaceous vegetation was more productive and of higher quality. Species composition and production was representative of shallow hardlands of the Southern High Plains region. Soil characteristic differences reflected the detrimental influence of continued herbage removal and trampling by livestock on the grazed area.
    • Fall and Winter Burning of South Texas Brush Ranges

      Box, T. W.; White, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Plots with no pretreatment and pretreated by shredding, chopping, scalping, root plowing, and root plowing and raking were subjected to a fall fire, a winter fire, and a fall fire with a winter reburn the following year. All burning treatments reduced brush cover when compared to the unburned control. Burns on pretreated areas were more effective in reducing brush than were fires in vegetation with no pretreatment. Two burns were more effective in reducing brush than was a single fire. Standing crops of herbage on all burned plots were greater than on the control. Fall burned plots had the largest amounts of grass; winter burned areas contained the most forbs.
    • Heavy Precipitation Influences Saline Clay Flat Vegetation

      Buckley, P. E.; Dodd, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      A vegetational analysis was made of the native grasses on a saline clay flat range site located on the Rio Grande Plains of Texas prior to and two months following Hurricane Beulah in 1967. Data prior to the hurricane indicated a mean grass plant density of about 26,000 per acre with negligible yield. Following the hurricane, an influx of annual and short-lived perennial grasses increased the density to approximately 700,000 grass plants per acre. Herbage yields increased to over 1200 pounds per acre. Presence of short-lived grasses provided forage and a desirable microenvironment for the establishment of seedlings of the more desirable grasses.
    • Index

      Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01
    • Magnetic Pin Brakes and a Base Mounting for Point Frames

      Conrad, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Point frame pins receive a smooth, even brake tension from horseshoe magnets. A point frame mounted on a rigid base allows quick, even spacing of points.
    • Nitrogen Concentration of Grasses in Relation to Temperature

      Duncan, C. C.; Schupp, M.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Six cool-season grasses and two warm-season grasses were grown in controlled environment chambers under cool- or warm-temperature regimes, fertilized with increasing rates of N, and analysed for total N and nitrate content. The effect of warm or cool temperatures on percent N was different for warm- and cool-season grasses and varied among individual species. Only two species accumulated nitrate in the cool-temperature regime. Nitrate accumulation under the warm-temperature regime occurred for most of the species, but only after an application of 100 lb N/acre.
    • Observations on the Mating System of Basin Wildrye

      Chapman, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Basin wildrye appears to be an obligate cross pollinator. Under forced self-pollination seed set is less than 2%.
    • Pre-Emergence Herbicides for Seeding Range Grasses

      McMurphy, W. E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Three herbicides were evaluated for use in seeding range grasses. Propazine, applied as a pre-emergence at rates up to 3.0 lb/acre, controlled broadleaf weeds and crabgrass but had no apparent retarding effect on the germination and growth of switchgrass and Old World bluestems. Siduron applied at 1.5 lb active ingredient/acre controlled large crabgrass and had no apparent retarding effect on switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass. Sideoats grama was harmed by all pre-emergence herbicides tested. Norea applied at 2 lb/acre retarded germination and seedling establishment of those species tested. None of the herbicides tested has been cleared for use on grazing lands.
    • Responses of Mountain Grassland Vegetation to Gopher Control, Reduced Grazing, and Herbicide

      Turner, G. T. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Deteriorated mountain grassland range on Grand Mesa in western Colorado improved slowly during 19 years of nonuse. It improved almost as much under light grazing. In contrast, grass production increased markedly within a short time after competition from forbs and shrubs had been reduced by herbicide. Pocket gopher control for 9 years increased production of certain plant species and decreased production of others.
    • Short Duration Grazing in Rhodesia

      Goodloe, S. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Remarkable results from a grazing management system were seen in three visits to Rhodesia between 1964 and 1969. The system, Short Duration Grazing, depends on intensive use for two weeks or less with varying rest periods. There are significant indications that the short duration-high intensity grazing period is just as important to range improvement as the rest period. Production records are essential to the success of the system.
    • The Piosphere: Sheep Track and Dung Patterns

      Lange, R. T. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      The basic ecological unit in arid areas under grazing animals is envisaged as a zone round a watering point and is termed the piosphere (from the Greek "pios" = to drink). A piosphere in which sheep tracks can be distinguished in aerial photographs has been investigated; length, direction and type of track are described; remarkable adherance of the tracks to the near radial (significant deviation of 2.5° to left) indicate navigational skill in sheep. Sheep forage but do not cut visible tracks between the radial tracks. Sheep density can be estimated from dung density since pellets of dung persist for long periods in the arid regions. It is suggested that understanding the piosphere will contribute to management in arid rangelands.
    • Use Seeded Ranges in Your Management

      Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Seeded ranges in conjunction with native range can effectively increase productivity and income from ponderosa pine ranges of Colorado. Average weight of weaned calves was 33 lb higher, and gross income per calf $8.95 larger from combined use of seeded and native range than from native range alone. Cows received better nutrition on seeded ranges, which may increase their lifelong production. Similar benefits can be expected by grazing yearlings. Seeding requires an initial investment of about $8.50 per acre which can be repaid within 3 years as a result of increased grazing capacity. Several grasses are recommended for seeding on the basis of their proven performance to meet specific forage needs.