• A Technique for Field Use of Radioactive Phosphorus

      Jaynes, C. C. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Dry ice was used in the field to solidify solutions of radioactive phosphorus. Cubes of the frozen material were dropped into holes formed adjacent to grass plants, the root systems of which were being studied by use of the radioactive tracer method.
    • Air-Flow Planimeter for Measuring Detached Leaf Area

      Mayland, H. F. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      An apparatus has been designed and tested for measuring area of detached leaves of all shapes. The apparatus is easy to operate and gives accurate results rapidly. Measurement variability is generally less than 1%.
    • Control of Live Oak in South Texas

      Bovey, R. W.; Lehman, S. K.; Morton, H. L.; Baur, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Aerial applications of herbicides were made in May, July and November, for control of live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) in South Texas. Single or repeated applications of (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T) at 2 lb/acre did not satisfactorily control live oak. However, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) at 1 or 2 lb/acre applied in May 1964 and retreated in May 1965 effectively controlled live oak (93 and 98%, respectively). Single applications of picloram at 2 and 4 lb/acre and a mixture of picloram + 2,4,5-T at 2+2 lb/acre were effective when applied in November 1965. Summer applications of picloram and picloram + 2,4,5-T required a repeat treatment for best results.
    • Economic Aspects of Beef Cattle Production in Southwest Alaska

      Boykin, C. C.; Lebrun, T. Q. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Although the demand of Alaska's increasing population for beef is largely met through inshipments, observations are made of the current and potential systems of range cattle production and marketing in Southwest Alaska necessary to capture a larger share of the State's beef market. While climate and vegetation in this area are favorable for large increases in beef cattle production, breakthroughs are needed in current systems of production, transportation, and marketing. Of particular importance is the need for rangeland development and management, an inexpensive source of feed concentrates, and the establishment of modern slaughtering and marketing facilities.
    • Effect of Clipping Date on Loamy Upland Bluestem Range

      Owensby, C. E.; Anderson, K. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      The effects on herbage yield and botanical composition of different clipping dates and subsequent removal or return of forage to bluestem range were studied. Yield of herbage was greatest under August 1 clipping. Removing clipped herbage reduced yields. Desirable species decreased under mid-summer clipping. Increaser species were favored by removing clipped forage.
    • Effects of Fire on Grasses of the Texas High Plains

      Trlica, M. J.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Fall, spring, and summer burning significantly reduced total forage production on a Texas High Plains range. Although herbage yields were less on burned plots, the vigor of the desirable blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis Willd. ex HBK) appeared to be benefited by fires while the vigor of two less desirable grasses appeared to be decreased. Spring burning is recommended over fall burning when moisture accumulation and erosion potential are considered. Recovery from fire was quickest after a summer burn.
    • Fertilization of Annual Range in Northern Israel

      Ofer, Y.; Seligman, N. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Trials were run for two years on eight typical range sites in the north of Israel to assess the effect of nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers on a sward composed of mixed annual mediterranean species. Responses of economic value were obtained where the vegetation grew on terra-rossa, on colluvium-alluvium derived from terra-rossa and on reddish-brown basaltic grumosol. On dark-brown basaltic grumosol and on light-coloured rendzina the response was too small to be of economic significance. The effect of fertilization on early growth was larger and more consistent than on the flush season yield.
    • Forage and Animal Gains of Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia

      Beaty, E. R.; Powell, J. D.; Edwards, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Similarly fertilized "Coastal" bermudagrass and "Pensacola" bahiagrass were clipped from May 18 until October 22, 1964, at monthly intervals, ground, pelleted, composited, and fed to beef steers. Forage production of bermudagrass was more uniform during the growing season than was that of the bahiagrass. Forage harvested earliest and latest in the season had a higher apparent dry matter digestibility, lower cell wall, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin content than that harvested in the middle of the season. The growth habit of bahiagrass does not suggest that it is a desirable hay plant. Animal performance showed that both forages produced slightly lower gains than did ground snapped corn. Only gains on bahiagrass were significantly lower, however. Plants such as bermudagrass and bahiagrass are probably more satisfactory forage plants when kept young by either mowing or grazing.
    • How Time and Intensity of Clipping Affect Tall Bluebell

      Laycock, W. A.; Conrad, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Removing 40, 70, and 100% of the foliage of tall bluebell plants for 4 consecutive years significantly reduced production, height, and stem number. Clipping during flowering and fruiting damaged plants more than treatment before flowering. Grazing systems for tall bluebell ranges should allow for deferment every two or three years to enable plants to maintain vigor and high production.
    • Moisture-Temperature Interrelations in Germination and Early Seedling Development of Mesquite

      Scifres, C. J.; Brock, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      A greater percentage of mesquite seeds germinated and more vigorous seedlings were produced at a simulated soil temperature of 85 F than at 70 or 100 F. Alternating the temperature between 68 (16 hr) and 86 F (8 hr) did not increase the percentage germination as compared to constant 85 F. As temperature increased moisture stress became more critical in the germination process. After 96 hr exposure to the optimum temperature, percentage germination was not suppressed by tensions up to 8 atm, and seedling vigor was not reduced by tensions up to 4 atm. These data indicate that mesquite seed may germinate and the seedlings become established on drier sites when the soil temperature reaches 85 F.
    • Pocket Gophers on Seeded Utah Mountain Range

      Julander, O.; Low, J. B.; Morris, O. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Observation of two comparable areas of mountain rangeland seeded to grass the same year showed that uncontrolled populations of pocket gophers were very destructive. Protection of seeded areas resulted in good stands of grass and forbs. No ideal measure for controlling pocket gophers has yet been developed.
    • Range and Livestock Characteristics of Paraguay

      Fretes, R. A.; Dwyer, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Paraguay, located in the central part of South America, has an area of 157,000 square miles (40.7 million hectares). The country is divided into two geographic-physiographic areas: the eastern area with 40 percent of the land and relatively high precipitation; and the western or Chaco region with 60 percent of the land area and a semi-arid type climate. The economy of the country is based primarily on livestock and forest products. The efficiency of beef production in Paraguay is lower than in many other countries because improved management techniques are still being developed. The rangelands have a high potential for forage production, but many are overgrazed and subjected to improper burning. In general, the future of the ranching enterprise in Paraguay is bright. With added technical assistance and more and better trained Paraguayans, Paraguay has the potential of becoming a leading agricultural nation in South America./Paraguay, localizado en la parte central de America del Sur tiene una superficie de 400,000 kilometros cuadrados. El pais se divide en dos unidades geograficas-fisiograficas; (1) la Region Oriental, con una superficie que abarca el 40% de las tierras del pais, con topografia ondulada y buenas precipitaciones durante el año y (2) la Region Occidental, o Chaco, que ocupa el 60% de las tierras, con una topografia plana y un clima semiarido. La economia del pais esta basada en la agricultura, ganaderia y produccion forestal. La ganaderia, de la cual la explotacion de bovinos es la mas importante, posee el potencial necesario para una mayor expansion y desarrollo.
    • Range Productivity as Influenced by Biennial Sweetclover in Western South Dakota

      Nichols, J. T.; Johnson, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Biennial sweetclover was seeded into a Dense Clay Range Site that was severely depleted by drought and overgrazing. Seeded in 1962 without seedbed preparation, sweetclover has reseeded naturally, and remained a compatable associate with the native vegetation during the five-year study. Combined grass and sweetclover production averaged 1804 lb/acre annually compared to 750 for the control. The grass component was increased by an average of 373 lb/acre as a result of legume supplied nitrogen. Western wheatgrass vigor and forage protein were also improved. Native perennial grasses were not reduced in abundance by sweetclover competition. Sweetclover appears well adapted as a legume for rangelands with heavy clay soils in western South Dakota.
    • Sagebrush Conversion to Grassland as Affected by Precipitation, Soil, and Cultural Practices

      Shown, L. M.; Miller, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      The most successful conversions of sagebrush to crested wheatgrass, in areas of the Western United States that receive an average of 8 to 14 inches of precipitation annually, usually occur where the annual precipitation exceeds 10 inches and on soils having medium moisture-holding capacities. Conversion results were intermediate on coarse soils having low moisture-holding capacities and comparatively poor on fine soils having high moisture-holding capacities. Degree of grass establishment varied directly with the big sagebrush vigor-index. Grass production was lower on gravelly sites converted from black sagebrush than on nearby sites converted from big sagebrush. Cheatgrass hindered the establishment of crested wheatgrass in some places. Conversion results were poor on sites where greasewood or shadscale was mixed with sagebrush. These halophytes had usually re-established on the treated sites.
    • Steer Grazing on Mixed Coniferous Forest Ranges in Northeastern Oregon

      Hedrick, D. W.; Eller, B. R.; McArthur, J. A. B.; Pettit, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Steers grazing on pinegrass-browse forage in the mixed coniferous forest make good use of these areas in late spring and early summer. Weight gains average about one pound per day for animals wintered at intermediate levels (gaining about one and one quarter pound per day). Cows on the same area in the fall brought the total stocking rate to about three acres per AUM. The best animal performance appears to coincide with maximum vegetative development, but early grazing is essential to fully utilize pinegrass and legumes. Browse is of primary value in the fall for cows from which calves have been weaned.
    • The American Society of Range Management and Conservation—What Does It Mean to Us?

      Poulton, Charles E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
    • Time of Collection and Storage in Relation to Germination of Desert Saltbush Seed

      Chatterton, N. J.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Seeds of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were collected at two locations early and later during the season of seed maturity. The percentage of filled seed was highest in the early collection. Seed that matured early and was collected early germinated more rapidly and to a higher percentage than seed collected when not fully mature. Seeds left to ripen on the plants often germinate while still on the plants.
    • Trick Tanks: Water Developments for Range Livestock

      Pearson, H. A.; Morrison, D. C.; Wolke, W. K. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Trick tanks with large rain collectors may provide water for livestock at half the cost of hauling, with an added benefit of shelter.
    • Why Proper Grazing Use?

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Proper grazing use is paramount in attaining efficiency of rangeland production. Numerous scientific studies provide the basic reasons for practicing proper use. Results of grazing intensity studies are being reported from the West. The reasons for proper grazing use are emphasized. The benefits are enumerated.