• Moisture-Temperature Interrelations in Germination and Early Seedling Development of Mesquite

      Scifres, C. J.; Brock, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      A greater percentage of mesquite seeds germinated and more vigorous seedlings were produced at a simulated soil temperature of 85 F than at 70 or 100 F. Alternating the temperature between 68 (16 hr) and 86 F (8 hr) did not increase the percentage germination as compared to constant 85 F. As temperature increased moisture stress became more critical in the germination process. After 96 hr exposure to the optimum temperature, percentage germination was not suppressed by tensions up to 8 atm, and seedling vigor was not reduced by tensions up to 4 atm. These data indicate that mesquite seed may germinate and the seedlings become established on drier sites when the soil temperature reaches 85 F.
    • Pocket Gophers on Seeded Utah Mountain Range

      Julander, O.; Low, J. B.; Morris, O. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Observation of two comparable areas of mountain rangeland seeded to grass the same year showed that uncontrolled populations of pocket gophers were very destructive. Protection of seeded areas resulted in good stands of grass and forbs. No ideal measure for controlling pocket gophers has yet been developed.
    • Range and Livestock Characteristics of Paraguay

      Fretes, R. A.; Dwyer, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Paraguay, located in the central part of South America, has an area of 157,000 square miles (40.7 million hectares). The country is divided into two geographic-physiographic areas: the eastern area with 40 percent of the land and relatively high precipitation; and the western or Chaco region with 60 percent of the land area and a semi-arid type climate. The economy of the country is based primarily on livestock and forest products. The efficiency of beef production in Paraguay is lower than in many other countries because improved management techniques are still being developed. The rangelands have a high potential for forage production, but many are overgrazed and subjected to improper burning. In general, the future of the ranching enterprise in Paraguay is bright. With added technical assistance and more and better trained Paraguayans, Paraguay has the potential of becoming a leading agricultural nation in South America./Paraguay, localizado en la parte central de America del Sur tiene una superficie de 400,000 kilometros cuadrados. El pais se divide en dos unidades geograficas-fisiograficas; (1) la Region Oriental, con una superficie que abarca el 40% de las tierras del pais, con topografia ondulada y buenas precipitaciones durante el año y (2) la Region Occidental, o Chaco, que ocupa el 60% de las tierras, con una topografia plana y un clima semiarido. La economia del pais esta basada en la agricultura, ganaderia y produccion forestal. La ganaderia, de la cual la explotacion de bovinos es la mas importante, posee el potencial necesario para una mayor expansion y desarrollo.
    • Range Productivity as Influenced by Biennial Sweetclover in Western South Dakota

      Nichols, J. T.; Johnson, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Biennial sweetclover was seeded into a Dense Clay Range Site that was severely depleted by drought and overgrazing. Seeded in 1962 without seedbed preparation, sweetclover has reseeded naturally, and remained a compatable associate with the native vegetation during the five-year study. Combined grass and sweetclover production averaged 1804 lb/acre annually compared to 750 for the control. The grass component was increased by an average of 373 lb/acre as a result of legume supplied nitrogen. Western wheatgrass vigor and forage protein were also improved. Native perennial grasses were not reduced in abundance by sweetclover competition. Sweetclover appears well adapted as a legume for rangelands with heavy clay soils in western South Dakota.
    • Sagebrush Conversion to Grassland as Affected by Precipitation, Soil, and Cultural Practices

      Shown, L. M.; Miller, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      The most successful conversions of sagebrush to crested wheatgrass, in areas of the Western United States that receive an average of 8 to 14 inches of precipitation annually, usually occur where the annual precipitation exceeds 10 inches and on soils having medium moisture-holding capacities. Conversion results were intermediate on coarse soils having low moisture-holding capacities and comparatively poor on fine soils having high moisture-holding capacities. Degree of grass establishment varied directly with the big sagebrush vigor-index. Grass production was lower on gravelly sites converted from black sagebrush than on nearby sites converted from big sagebrush. Cheatgrass hindered the establishment of crested wheatgrass in some places. Conversion results were poor on sites where greasewood or shadscale was mixed with sagebrush. These halophytes had usually re-established on the treated sites.
    • Steer Grazing on Mixed Coniferous Forest Ranges in Northeastern Oregon

      Hedrick, D. W.; Eller, B. R.; McArthur, J. A. B.; Pettit, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Steers grazing on pinegrass-browse forage in the mixed coniferous forest make good use of these areas in late spring and early summer. Weight gains average about one pound per day for animals wintered at intermediate levels (gaining about one and one quarter pound per day). Cows on the same area in the fall brought the total stocking rate to about three acres per AUM. The best animal performance appears to coincide with maximum vegetative development, but early grazing is essential to fully utilize pinegrass and legumes. Browse is of primary value in the fall for cows from which calves have been weaned.
    • The American Society of Range Management and Conservation—What Does It Mean to Us?

      Poulton, Charles E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
    • Time of Collection and Storage in Relation to Germination of Desert Saltbush Seed

      Chatterton, N. J.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Seeds of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were collected at two locations early and later during the season of seed maturity. The percentage of filled seed was highest in the early collection. Seed that matured early and was collected early germinated more rapidly and to a higher percentage than seed collected when not fully mature. Seeds left to ripen on the plants often germinate while still on the plants.
    • Trick Tanks: Water Developments for Range Livestock

      Pearson, H. A.; Morrison, D. C.; Wolke, W. K. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Trick tanks with large rain collectors may provide water for livestock at half the cost of hauling, with an added benefit of shelter.
    • Why Proper Grazing Use?

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-09-01)
      Proper grazing use is paramount in attaining efficiency of rangeland production. Numerous scientific studies provide the basic reasons for practicing proper use. Results of grazing intensity studies are being reported from the West. The reasons for proper grazing use are emphasized. The benefits are enumerated.