• A Gate Latch for Electric Fences

      Dalrymple, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
    • A Micro-Ridge Roller for Seedbed Modification

      Hyder, D. N; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Mechanical methods of seedbed preparation can not be fully developed for some sandy soils without a way to protect the soil from wind erosion. A firmed micro-ridge relief is being evaluated for benefits in both soil stability and soil-moisture relations. This paper describes the roller used to prepare a micro-ridge seedbed surface.
    • A Plea for Fewer but More-Significant Digits

      Dyne, George Van (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Using data from this journal, the author shows how considerable savings can be made in space and in reading time by rounding tabulated data.
    • A Review of Browse in the Nutrition of Grazing Animals

      Wilson, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Literature on the chemical analyses, animal preference, digestibility, and intake of browse and on the production of animals grazing on browse is examined. It is concluded that browse has not yet been shown to make a major contribution to the nutrition of domestic or most game animals and further study of browse-grass comparisons is needed./Este artículo revisa el progreso que se ha logrado en las evaluaciones de arbustos respecto a: análisis químicos, preferencia para pastoreo, digestibilidad y consumo, y su producción medida en animales. Se concluyó que no se ha mostrado todavía que los arbustos tengan una contribución importante en la nutrición de los animales domésticos o animales silvestres mayores. En algunas zonas áridas se ha estado demostrando que no tienen contribución, pero existen otras situaciones climáticas y vegetales en las cuales pueden ser importantes forrajeras. Conformarse con estos estudios en la evaluación de solo la calidad puede ser engañoso porque los arbustos tienen deficien cias en materia seca la cual persiste con el pastoreo. Discusiones sobre el diseño de las investigaciones futuras relativas a evaluaciones de arbustos son presentadas.
    • Aerial Photo Interpretation on British Columbia Rangelands

      Lord, T. M.; McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Following intensive study of soils and plant communities in the Princeton area of southern British Columbia, it became apparent that photo interpretation techniques could be used to greater advantage in soils surveys and land classification than as simply field mapping guides. Significant relationships between soil-vegetation-physiographic units and photo patterns appeared. The area, a topographic low within the Thompson Plateau, contains mainly Chernozemic soils developed under grassland and open tree cover. Six land units were distinguished by combinations of tone, pattern, and texture on aerial photos as determined by topography, nature of bedrock or surficial deposits, drainage, kinds of vegetation, and patterns of micro-features and were related to land use.
    • An Improved Technique for Identification of Plant Fragments in Herbivore feces

      Williams, Owen B. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      An improved bleaching, staining and mounting procedure for fecal samples permits the identification of plant fragments to be made with the projection microscope in addition to the usual binocular types. Small modifications to existing techniques of preparing standard plant material facilitate direct comparison of plant fragments in feces with these standards.
    • Botanical Composition of Diet of Steers Grazing a Desert Grassland Range

      Galt, H. D.; Theurer, B.; Ehrenreich, J. H.; Hale, W. H.; Martin, S. C. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Rumen-fistulated steers were employed to study the botanical composition of the diet on a desert grassland range. Botanical composition of the major plant species in the diet was determined on a qualitative and quantitative basis using a microscope point technique. The botanical composition of the diet changed greatly with time of year and was considerably different quantitatively compared to the available forage. Crude protein content of the rumen samples was considerably greater than the protein content of the whole hand-clipped major plant species identified in the rumen samples./Para estudiar la composición botánica de la dieta en un pastizal desértico de gramíneas en Arizona, se emplearon novillos con fistula ruminal. La composición botánica de la dieta de los novillos varió cualitativa y cuantitativamente dentro de los cuatro meses del período de colección. La dieta con el tiempo no solo varió grandemente en la cantidad de ciertas especies de zacates y a fines de otoño y principios de invierno ciertos arbustos y cactus llegaron a ser parte de la dieta. La composición de las especies de las muestras del rumen difirieron marcadamente en forma cuantitativa al compararse con el forraje disponible. Los novillos fueron muy selectivos no solamente en la elección de las especies de plantas disponibles sino también en la parte de la planta que ellos pastoreaban. El contenido de proteína cruda de las muestras del rumen fue marcadamente mas grande que el contenido de proteína cruda estimado basado en un promedio de peso del porciento de composición de las especies de plantas predominantes en la dieta y los valores de proteína para las especies cortadas a mano. El contenido mayor de proteína en las muestras del rumen parece ser debido a la selectividad de los animales a partes específicas de la planta. Estos resultados reflejan la dificultad en estimar el contenido de proteína cruda la dieta de novillos pastoreando por medio de muestras de plantas cortadas a mano. En adición, estimaciones obtenidas por la observación de los novillos cuando pastoreaban proveyó una información cualitativa general acerca de qué especies de plantas fueron seleccionadas, pero tales estimaciones no fueron cuantitativamente confiables.
    • Changes in Prairie Plant Composition

      Jensen, Peter N.; Schumacher, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      In an excellent range condition, the bluestems (big and little) decreased 15% in abundance from 1949 to 1964. Kentucky bluegrass increased to 42% in the good condition class. In fair condition all the bluestems remained, but in low vigor. The primary reason for the changes was an addition of a livestock pond, which created additional grazing pressure, and favorable climatic condition for Kentucky bluegrass.
    • Culture and Mechanical Seed Harvest of Fourwing Saltbush Grown Under Irrigation

      Stroh, James R.; Thornburg, Ashley A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      The culture, management, and mechanical seed harvest of fourwing saltbush grown under irrigated farm crop conditions has been developed. The phenology and internal moisture regime of this plant bears directly on seed harvest operations and timing. Manipulation of plant growth habit from a branching shrub type to single upright stems is essential for adaptation to mechanical harvest. This is accomplished by cutting the plant to a two-inch stubble height and leaving decumbent branches intact on the plant, from which the erect branches arise the following year.
    • Don't Fence Us In

      Williams, R. E (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
    • Early Seedling Growth of Italian Ryegrass and Smilo as Affected by Nutrition

      Ayeke, C. A.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      The effect of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on the seedling vigor of two important but dissimilar grass species, Lolium multiflorum and Oryzopsis miliacea is reported. There was significant reduction in seedling growth at high concentrations of NH4NO3 + NH4H2PO4 but with NH4 NO3 alone the high concentrations neither increased nor decreased seedling growth. Nitrogen uptake of seedlings increased as the level of nitrogen increased. Rapid depletion of endosperm starch and low concentrations of total sugars and reducing sugars in seedlings were associated with the high levels of nitrogen fertilization.
    • Economic Importance of Federal Grazing: An Interindustry Analysis

      Bromley, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      An important, yet overlooked aspect of public land management involves the economic significance to rural areas of grazing and lumber production on federal lands. To illustrate the relative importance of these two uses, a mathematical technique was used to quantify the economic interdependence of all business activity in an eastern Oregon county. In addition to a description of the existing situation, changes in magnitude of grazing and logging use in the county were simulated to illustrate likely impact on the local economy.
    • Forage Production of Amclo and Crimson Clover on Pensacola and Coastal Bermudagrass Sods

      Beaty, E. R.; Powell, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      In an experiment completed at the Americus Plant Material Center, Americus, Georgia, amclo clover, T. vesiculosum, was grown on Pensacola bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass sods at 6 fertility levels and crimson clover was grown at one fertility level on the same sods. Data showed that amclo with adequate fertilization would make a contribution to the forage production of Pensacola bahiagrass when stands of the clover were obtained in the fall (with procedures used in this research). Stand failures occurred 50% of the time and further research on obtaining stands of amclo on bahiagrass and bermudagrass sods would appear to be in line. The data in this investigation showed that amclo was not as productive on Coastal bermudagrass sod as was crimson clover. Neither clover was as productive on Coastal as on bahiagrass. While fertilizer application had a positive effect on clover production, it did not necessarily assure high clover production.
    • High Rates of Nitrogen Fertilization Influence Coastal Prairie Range

      Drawe, D. L.; Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Nitrogen at four rates, 100, 300, 600, and 900 lb/acre, and a combination of 900 lb N, 100 lb P2O5/acre were applied to a bunchgrass-annual forb community in a randomized complete block design in 1965. Fertilization with nitrogen and nitrogen with phosphorous increased the total production in all cases, although grass production decreased in 1967. Nitrogen content and protein content of forage increased with all rates of fertilization. Phosphorous content increased only when phosphorous was added to the nitrogen fertilizer. There was no change in potassium content with any treatment. Residual amounts of phosphorous occurred in the soil one year after fertilization. Cattle grazed fertilized strips more heavily than the control plots. Both the percent utilization and pounds of herbage increased with fertilization rate. There was no difference in the amount of residual material left after grazing.
    • Mineral and Protein Contents of Blue Grama and Western Wheatgrass

      Rauzi, Frank; Painter, L. I.; Dobrenz, Albert K. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Mineral and crude protein contents of blue grama and western wheatgrass were influenced by stage of maturity and precipitation at the Archer Substation near Cheyenne, Wyoming during the growing season in 1965. Mineral and crude protein levels of the two grasses generally declined with maturity./Este estudio se llevó a cabo en la Subestación de ARCHER cerca de Cheyenne, Wyoming, EUA. El contenido de proteína de cada especie declinó generalmente con el desarrollo. Sin embargo, el navajita azul mostró variaciones en el contenido de proteína por el crecimiento nuevo después de las lluvias aún durante el otoño y después de algunos días con heladas. Se observó un aumento rápido en el contenido de proteína con el crecimiento nuevo pero éste no ocurrió para el Western Wheatgrass. A mediados de agosto el contenido de fósforo en ambas especies declinó por abajo de los requisitos alimenticios dados por el National Research Council (NRC). Esto sugiere la necesidad de empezar la suplementación de fósforo en agosto. El contenido de cobre en el mes de julio para ambas especies estuvo abajo de los requisitos alimenticios del NRC, pero los borregos no mostraron síntomas de deficiencias. Cada especie tuvo bastante calcio, manganeso, magnesio y hierro para toda la estación de pastoreo.
    • Nutrient Analysis of Two Browse Species

      Short, H. L.; Harrell, A. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      In current twigs of American beautyberry and rusty blackhaw, fiber content increased during spring and remained high for the remainder of the year. Old twigs usually contained more fiber than current twigs. Levels of protein, nitrogen-free extract, and cell contents-the most digestible fractions-were highest in spring, and new twigs contained higher levels than old twigs. Leaves, particularly those of beautyberry, were more nutritious than twigs or fruit. Beautyberry fruit was most succulent and nutritious when it ripened in early autumn.
    • Range, Range Men, Range Management, and ASRM

      Gates, Dillard H. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
    • Remnant Prairies on the Shallow Limy Range Site in North Central Texas

      Hulett, G. K.; Tomanek, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      Eleven ungrazed shallow limy range sites were studied as to species composition, edaphic characteristics, and range condition. These stands were located in the shale-limestone region of north-central Kansas. The sites were dominated by little bluestem and big bluestem. Edaphic conditions were marked by high surface rockiness, basic pH, low mulch, and low water-retaining capacity. Range condition as assessed by the Dyksterhuis method placed all stands in excellent range condition.