• Stabilizing Small Seed Dilution Mixtures

      Lavin, F.; Gomm, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Twelve diluent treatments were compared for their effectiveness in preventing separation of small seed from dilution mixtures. Rice hulls in combination with methyl cellulose sticker was the best of the diluents tested. Simple, practical procedures for field use of this modified rice hull dilution method were developed.
    • Soil Moisture and Temperature Changes Following Sagebrush Control

      Fisser, H. G. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Soil moisture and temperature were measured for a five-year period on a mesic foothill grassland and on an arid cold desert shrub-type in western Wyoming. Herbage production increased on both the arid and mesic sites following the sagebrush and grazing control treatment with the greatest increase occurring on the mesic site. Average annual soil temperature was greatest at the arid site and was warmest in the shrub-dominated areas at both sites. Soil moisture recharge during the spring period was greatest at the mesic site under the non-use treatment but at the arid site grazing treatment did not significantly influence moisture accumulation. Under the shrub control treatment, soil moisture recharge was little influenced at the mesic site and at the arid site greatest soil moisture recharge occurred in the non-controlled shrub area. Soil moisture withdrawal was similar at both the arid and mesic sites in that the least amounts of moisture were taken from the soil under the grazed and non-controlled shrub treatments. Soil moisture accumulation during the spring period was greatest at the mesic site from 24 to 60 inches below the soil surface and the greatest values occurred in the shrub controlled grassland area. At the arid site high moisture levels occurred only down to the 12-inch depth.
    • Seeding Annuals and Perennials in Natural Desert Range

      Tadmor, N. H.; Evenari, M.; Katznelson, J. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Seeding of pasture plants in a desert in a 78-mm rainfall year resulted in complete failure of all perennials to establish themselves. Annuals, on the other hand, in spite of stunted growth, completed their life cycle and produced seed. Water-spreading is a pre-requisite for successful establishment of perennial pasture plants under desert conditions.
    • Seasonal Forage Preferences of Grazing Cattle and Sheep in Western Oregon

      Bedell, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      On perennial ryegrass-subclover and tall fescue-subclover forage mixtures, grazing cattle preferred grass to clover during the spring-summer period. Sheep selected a consistently high amount of subclover in both pasture mixtures during spring. In summer, sheep preferred tall fescue to subclover but on ryegrass-subclover pastures retained or increased dietary preferences for dry subclover over ryegrass. Light and heavy stocking induced no large differences in forage selection patterns for either cattle or sheep.
    • Seasonal and Livestock Influences in Estimating Foliage Density of Vegetation

      Rittenhouse, L. R.; Burzlaff, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      A knowledge of the influence of advance in season and activity of grazing animals on foliage-density estimates is necessary to properly assess trends or evaluate range treatments. Foliage-density estimates were made at 14-day intervals from June 20 through August 17 of the years 1964 and 1965 at the Scotts Bluff Experimental Range. Significant differences were found in foliage densities of various species among dates of sampling. These differences varied between years of the study. Grazing and trampling of livestock had little effect on foliage-density estimates. Optimum time for estimating foliage density of mixed-prairie vegetation was established as being the period one week prior to and one week following July 20. Grazing influences did not alter these dates.
    • Sand Dune Rehabilitation in Thal, Pakistan

      Anwar Khan, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Rangeland improvement in Thal, Pakistan through reseeding was started in 1962. These operations were impressively successful on heavy soil valley flats but loose sand dunes defied all efforts of sowings. These dunes have been successfully rehabilitated through planting tufts of Cenchrus ciliaris (dhaman) and Elyonurus hirsutus (karera). On better sites, grasses seeded in flats are spreading naturally to the dunes. Under "Thal Technique of Planting Trees" more than 100,000 fodder trees have been transplanted successfully since July 1964 in earthen tubes (baked) without watering. Experiments to determine effects of exposure and different competition levels on height growth of Zizyphus jujuba (ber) are presented. Southeastern (leeward) exposures have been found to be significantly (highly) better than tops and northwesterly (windward) exposures. The minimum plant competition level gave significantly (highly) more height growth than the other three levels./El mejoramiento de los pastizales en Thal, Pakistán por medio de la siembra, fue iniciado en 1962. Se obtuvo un éxito impresionante en las siembras hechas en valles planos con suelos pesados, pero en las dunas de arena suelta todos los esfuerzos por sembrar resultaron fallidos. Sin embargo, dichas dunas han sido rehabilitadas exitosamente por medio del transplante de macollos de Cenchrus ciliaris y Elyonurus hirsutus. Los zacates sembrados en los valles están invadiendo en forma natural las dunas. Los pastizales de verano en Thal tienen zacates verdes disponibles por seis meses únicamente; a excepción de Elysine flagellitera en general durante su dormancia dichos zacates no mantienen un alto valor nutritivo. Tradicionalmente durante el invierno la principal fuente de alimento es el ramoneo. Los árboles de ramoneo se presentan como fuente esencial de abastecimiento de forraje durante todo el año, su aumento estable por medio de técnicas de plantación es entonces un problema mayor en el área. Una técnica conocida como "técnica Thal para plantar árboles" ha probado tener mucho éxito en ciertas especies de árboles bajo situaciones específicas. La técnica incluye la construcción de tubos de arcilla cocidos, con una longitud de 30 cm (1 pie) y con un diámetro de 11.25 cm (4.5 pulgadas). Las especies deseadas son plantadas en los tubos en invernaderos para que posteriormente cuando tengan sus raíces y follaje adecuadamente desarrollados sean transplantados en el campo. El propósito del tubo es proporcionar a la planta un medio en el cual pueda sobrevivir hasta que pueda tomar ventaja de la humedad existente en la arena de las dunas, siendo entonces el tiempo de plantación el factor mas determinante. Se encontró que el transplante no se deberá intentar hasta que haya humedad adecuada en 30 cm (1 pie) en el estrato superficial del suelo. Las plantaciones de Prosopis spicigera han sido las de mas éxito, otras especies fueron susceptibles a la destrucción por insectos. Las plantaciones de exposición sureste fueron significativamente mejores que los realizados en exposición noroeste y en la cima de las dunas. Una mínima competencia con las plantas dio un crecimiento en altura significativamente mayor.
    • Production and Persistence of Wild Annual Peanuts in Bahia and Bermudagrass Sods

      Beaty, E. R.; Powell, John D.; Stanley, Robert L. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      A wild annual forage peanut was seeded in Pensacola bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass sods and found to persist for at least 3 years and showed indications of persisting for a much longer time. The peanut can be established by either preparation of a seed bed and planting or by seeding directly into the undisturbed sod. Preparation of a seed bed before planting improved peanut establishment but reduced total forage yields for at least one season. The total forage yield of the grass and peanut was not higher than that of the grass alone. Adding P and K fertilizers did not increase forage yields of either the peanut or grass over a 3-year period. A 50 lb/acre application of N increased total forage production but reduced the amount of peanut forage produced. In range areas of the Southeast and probably throughout much of Latin America where little N is applied, the forage peanut is one of the first tropical legumes to show promise in grasslegume mixtures.
    • Preliminary Economic Evaluation of Cattle Distribution Practices on Mountain Rangelands

      Workman, J. P.; Hooper, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      The grazing capacity of mountain rangelands can be increased by management practices which improve cattle distribution. In this study, the increased economic returns resulting from pond construction, spring development, and trail construction appear to justify investment in these projects by either private operators or the federal government. Guzzler construction may be a sound investment for the stockman, but does not appear profitable for the federal government. Under the conditions of this study, fencing mountain rangelands was not profitable for either stockmen or the federal government. Both strategic salting and cattle herding (drifting) appear to be profitable practices for the rancher.
    • Grazed Plant Utilization Method

      Charlton, M. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if one regression line for crested wheatgrass and one for needleandthread grass could be used to determine utilization on different sites in different years. Regression lines were developed for each of 4 sites and 2 years and then compared by covariance analysis. It was determined that a common linear regression line was satisfactory for field application.
    • Germination of Winterfat Seeds Under Different Moisture Stresses and Temperatures

      Springfield, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Germination of winterfat decreased and was delayed as moisture stress increased. Decreases were proportionately less at lower temperatures, which indicates soil drying may not be as detrimental to germination during cool weather. One of the two sources of seed tested germinated better under all moisture stresses. Further research may reveal certain sources are superior for revegetation.
    • Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Native Rangeland

      Rauzi, F.; Lang, R. L.; Painter, L. I. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to native rangeland at the Archer and Gillette Substations in Wyoming to determine the effect on yield, crude protein and composition. Yields of the warm season grasses were not significantly increased by fertilization. The increase of cool season grasses was a function of time rather than fertilization with one exception. Nitrogen fertilization increased the percentage crude protein of the grasses studied. The decline of blue grama at both locations was attributed to the subnormal precipitation during the study period. Nitrogen fertilization was not an economical practice during the years of the study at the two locations because moisture was the greatest limiting factor./Se hizo un estudio en las Subestaciones Archer y Gillette, Wyoming, para determinar el efecto de ciertas dosis y fechas de la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados en la producción, por centaje de proteína cruda y cambios en composición. La precipitatción estuvo por abajo del promedio de muchos años por espacio de 3 de los 4 años de estudio en la subestación de Archer y durante los 4 años en la subestación de Gillette. Los resultados reflejan las condiciones de sequía que prevalecieron. Los resultados de estos estudios indican que la fertilización de pastizales nativos representados por estas localidades y para los años de estudio no fue una práctica económica debido a la humedad que fue el factor limitante mas grande. Los zacates de épocas frías aumentaron en ambas localidades, pero el aumento no fue resultado directo de la fertilización. Un aumento significativo de los zacates de época fría en la loca lidad de Gillette, se obtuvo con 66 kg/ha (66 lb/acre) en 1959. Debido a la sequía el pasto Bouteloua gracilis redujo su cobertura relativa en las parcelas de la subestación de Gillette. La cobertura de Poa secunda aumentó por la utilización de la humedad de principios de primavera. En ambas subestaciones el porcentaje de proteína cruda fue aumentando en las especies colectadas en los lotes fertilizados. El promedio de tres y cuatro años para las los localidades mostró algo de variación en el porcentaje de proteína cruda por tratamientos y época de siembra.
    • Drought and Phosphorous Affect Growth of Annual Forage Legumes

      Wilson, A. M.; McKell, C. M.; Williams, W. A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Three annual forage legumes, apparently differing in their drought resistance in the field, were grown in controlled environments to better understand mechanisms of their drought resistance and to determine relationships between phosphorus nutrition and drought. Phosphorus fertilization stimulated growth of the annual legumes and decreased water use (ml/g dry weight of top growth). Relative top growth and phosphorus uptake of Spanish clover tended to confirm observations of its drought resistance in the field. Water use was higher in Spanish clover than in subterranean clover and therefore does not appear to contribute to its drought resistance. This study provides information that will be helpful in future research on the morphological and physiological traits that contribute to drought resistance in these and other range plants.
    • Critical Nitrate-N Concentrations for Growth of Two Strains of Idaho Fescue

      Hylton, L. O.; Ulrich, A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Nitrate-N in shoots of different strains of Idaho fescue, Festuca idahoensis, can be used for an adequate diagnosis of their respective N statuses at the late vegetative growth stage. The suggested critical nitrate-N concentration for growth of Elmer Idaho fescue, the improved strain used in this study, is 500 ppm of nitrate-N in the shoots, dry basis. The suggested critical nitrate-N concentration for growth of the nonimproved strain is 140 ppm of nitrate-N, dry basis. These critical concentrations are guides that can be used to determine the N status of Idaho fescue on rangelands. Nitrate-N in shoots of Idaho fescue should be above 500 ppm, dry basis, during active vegetative growth, if maximum forage production is desirable.
    • Cold Storage Not Required for Fourwing Saltbush Seeds

      Springfield, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Seeds refrigerated 4 years germinated no better than seeds stored under ordinary conditions. Viability was retained for 6 years under storage at 55 to 95 F.
    • Chemical Control of Low Sagebrush and Associated Green Rabbitbrush

      Eckert, R. E.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Low sagebrush species were effectively controlled with low volatile esters of 2,4-D at 2 lb/acre applied from May 1 to May 15 on sites with early phenology and May 15 to June 1 on sites with late phenology. Sandberg bluegrass phenology ranged from late boot to fully headed but preanthesis. Green rabbitbrush in mixed stands with low sagebrush was effectively controlled with 2,4-D at 3 lb/acre applied near the end of the treatment period for low sagebrush. A combination of picloram plus 2,4-D was also evaluated for green rabbitbrush control.
    • Cheatgrass Range in Southern Idaho: Seasonal Cattle Gains and Grazing Capacities

      Murray, R. B.; KIemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Yearling cattle gained weight satisfactorily on cheatgrass range under rotational (moderate) and continuous (moderate and heavy) grazing systems during a 3-year study. This study was designed to determine effects of these systems on the rangeland-not on individual plant species. Assignment of these systems to different pastures each year precluded evaluation of long-term vegetal response to the treatments. Weight gain was greatest in late spring. Grazing capacity of the range and cattle gain per acre increased through the summer, then declined. Yearly variation in production of forage and beef was apparently due to weather. Grazing capacity and beef production increased under continuous heavy grazing, but possible vegetation changes not evaluated in this study make heavy grazing undesirable.