• An Aerial Method of Dispensing Ground Squirrel Bait

      Marsh, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      A need for improving and updating rodent-control methodology prompted this study of the use of aircraft for baiting destructive populations of ground squirrels. Both spot and strip baiting by air were effective when applied in narrow swaths at a rate of 6 lb/swath acre. The aerial technique of dispersing bait gave good control when the ground squirrel population was foraging extensively for seed. The bait need be applied to only a fraction of the ground surface of squirrel-infested rangeland.
    • Chemical Composition of Bighorn Winter Forages

      Demarchi, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Chemical analysis revealed that the principal forage species which comprised more than 95% of the California bighorn winter diet in the Ashnola watershed (British Columbia) contained sufficient crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, nitrogen-free extract, and calcium for maintenance. However, by the same standards, all species and notably the grasses, were deficient in phosphorus. Low phosphorus and moderate calcium levels produced unfavorable calcium: phosphorus ratios by mid winter. Columbia needlegrass, a principal increaser species and an unimportant item in the bighorn winter diet, was inferior to the other species investigated. Bluebunch wheatgrass, a decreaser species and the most important bighorn food species, appeared to be the most nutritious grass.
    • Cold Storage Helps Winterfat Seeds

      Springfield, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Eurotia lanata seeds from five sources retained higher viability when stored 3 years at -5 to -9 F, and five of six sources retained higher viability when stored 2-1/2 years at 38 to 42 F, compared with storage at 55 to 95 F.
    • Conservation, Development, and Use of the World's Rangelands

      Williams, R. E.; Allred, B. W.; Denio, R. M.; Paulsen, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Some 47% of the world's land area is suitable only for grazing by domestic livestock and game animals-either frequently or occasionally. These rangelands support animals which provide most of the world's meat, milk, hides, wool, and other animal products. They have major values for watershed, wildlife habitat, soil and water conservation, fuel, and important by-products. Large areas are in poor condition, primarily because of overgrazing. The American Society of Range Management has an increasingly important role in focusing attention on the world's rangelands and in stimulating effective programs of research, education, and action.
    • Discussion and Development of the Point-Centered Quarter Method of Sampling Grassland Vegetation

      Heyting, A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      The point-centered quarter method of sampling grassland vegetation is critically examined. Statistical techniques of processing data collected by the method are presented. These techniques are discussed in the light of findings from a sampling experiment at Matopos Experiment Station, Rhodesia.
    • Estimating Botanical Composition of Forage Samples from Fistulated Steers by a Microscope Point Method

      Galt, H. D.; Ogden, P. R.; Ehrenreich, J. H.; Theurer, B.; Martin, S. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      A microscope point method was used to develop weight prediction equations for plant species in masticated forage samples of known species weights collected at the end of two successive growing seasons. A high correlation was found in regressions of percent weight on percent points for all the masticated plant species. Two observers were consistent in their ability to estimate similar amounts of plant species in a given species mixture. With 400 microscope points, the average weight of a species was estimated within 5% of the mean at a 90% level of probability when the species constituted 30 to 60% of the sample weight.
    • Loco Plant Poisoning in Sheep

      James, L. F.; Bennett, K. L.; Parker, K. G.; Keeler, R. F.; Binns, W.; Lindsay, B. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      This report includes data on utilization of loco plant by sheep on winter range, a comparison of the toxicity of loco plant to sheep of different ages, influence of supplementation on the incidence of locoism, and a detailed review of the literature on locoweed poisoning in sheep. Sheep grazed locoweed readily even though other good forage and supplements were available. The amount of locoweed they consumed increased throughout the experiment. At the end (12 weeks), sheep were eating primarily locoweed and shadscale and were severely "locoed." Signs of poisoning were observed first in aged ewes and lambs. Presently the prevention of loco poisoning on winter desert ranges lies in avoiding loco-infested areas almost entirely.
    • Mechanical Control of Pricklypear and Other Woody Species on the Rio Grande Plains

      Dodd, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Rootplowing and rootplowing combined with rootraking increased the density of pricklypear stands but decreased the density of other undesirable woody species. Chaining resulted in extremely dense stands of pricklypear. Dragging caused a great reduction in the density of the pricklypear but had only limited effects on other woody species. Dragging, followed by rootplowing appeared to decrease the density of all undesirable woody species. This dual operation resulted in the establishment of a relatively brush-free grassland, which with management and periodic maintenance, can produce a large quantity of desirable herbaceous forage on a sustained basis./El estudio se llevó a cabo en los planos del Río Bravo al sur de Texas. Se observó que tanto el desenraice con arado solo como el desenraice con arado combinado con rastreo aumentaron la densidad del nopal y disminuyeron la densidad de malezas arbustivas. El uso de cadenas resultó en nopaleras muy densas pero solo retardó el crecimiento de otras malezas arbustivas. En cada uno de estos métodos hubo una tendencia a cambiar de un tipo de vegetación dominante con arbustos a otro tipo con nopaleras densas. Una serie de rastreos (con barandillas) causó una reducción significativa en la densidad del nopal, pero el único efecto sobre las malezas arbustivas fue una reducción de crecimiento. Sin embargo, este método seguido de un desenraice con arado dio lugar a una disminución de la densidad de todas las malezas arbustivas incluyendo el nopal. Este método combinado dio lugar al establecimiento de un pastizal de zacates con pocas especies malas el cual con un manejo adecuado y un control periódico de mantenimiento de las especies indeseables que van a reinvadir puede producir una gran cantidad de forraje deseable proveniente de herbáceas sobre una base de mantenimiento.
    • Range Resources of Somalia

      Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Livestock production from native rangelands is the most important agricultural enterprise in the Somali Republic. The ranges of Somalia have a potential for much greater production than is currently realized. Many of the areas described in the literature as desert are grassland savannahs. These areas can support large numbers of livestock if properly managed. The major problems are development of water, use of grazing systems, proper stocking, and application of range management principles.
    • Reclaiming Brushland in Southwestern Alberta

      Johnston, A.; Smoliak, S. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Brush invasion of grasslands continues to be a serious problem in southwestern Alberta. As moist draws and slopes are invaded by brush the amount of forage available for grazing is decreased. Mechanical control is usually practiced although chemical control has been utilized in control of willow or aspen regrowth.
    • Sampling Requirements of the Water-Intake Method of Estimating Forage Intake by Grazing Cattle

      Hyder, D. N.; Bement, R. E.; Norris, J. J. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      The water-intake method of estimating forage intake by grazing cattle can permit a valuable extension of research on semiarid grasslands, but eventually we shall require a wider applicability and greater assurance of accuracy than can be attained at present. This method requires the measurement of water drunk, mean air temperature, and moisture content of forage. Sampling requirements of each measurement were evaluated in 1966 and limits of application were defined in terms of mean air temperatures and moisture contents of forage.
    • Seed Yield and Caryopsis Weight of Side-Oats Grama

      Smika, D. E.; Newell, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Insect control, row spacing, and nitrogen fertilization were studied. Insect control increased seed set and seed yields of side-oats grama. Seed set and seed yields per acre were higher but caryopsis weight was lower from plantings in solid stands than from spaced rows. Nitrogen fertilizer maintained seed quality and increased seed set and yields of cleaned seed. Cultural practices to obtain maximum development of caryopses, as well as large yields, should be utilized because of the great importance of seed quality in stand establishment.
    • Soil Information for Range Resource Evaluation

      Anderson, E. William (Society for Range Management, 1968-11-01)
      Soil is a major physical component of the ecosystem. To ignore soil or treat it superficially merely restricts knowledge of the resource. The amount of soil detail needed depends upon the character of the landscape, the complexity of the resource, the uses to be made of the survey data, and the amount of money available to do the job. Too much soil detail should be avoided and too little detail may make the survey worthless for evaluating the range resource. There is flexibility in how soil mapping units can be designed to meet the needs.