• Tillering at the Reproductive Stage in Hardinggrass

      Laude, H. M.; Riveros, G.; Murphy, A. H.; Fox, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Depression of tillering near the onset of flowering is characteristic of several perennial grasses. This was studied in hardinggrass by producing for comparison at one time both vegetative and reproductive plants through manipulation of daylength and temperature. Reduced tillering at the heading stage is associated with some aspect of the reproductive condition, as well as with the increasing dryness and temperature which may exist at this stage of growth in the field. Grazing to remove elongating flowering culms will stimulate tillering if conditions favorable for growth prevail.
    • The International Biological Program

      Byerly, T. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
    • The Cimarron National Grassland: a Study in Land Use Adjustment

      Guest, B. R. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      The national grassland program has produced a number of beneficial changes in both the land and the economy of southwestern Kansas. Through the federal purchase and conversion of marginal farmland to grassland and integrating the management of these lands with associated private lands, soil erosion and water runoff have been reduced and a more dependable supply of summer forage has been provided the area's livestock industry. Multiple use management of the government lands has also produced a habitat for wildlife, ponds for waterfowl and fish, and recreational opportunities. The grassland program in southwestern Kansas seems to be accomplishing its objective of proper land use consistent with the conservation of the area's natural resources.
    • Summer Precipitation and Steer Gain Interactions on Supplemented Shortgrass Range

      Launchbaugh, J. L.; Brethour, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Supplementing late-summer native shortgrass range with 1.5 lb of cottonseed meal or 1.5 lb of sorghum grain resulted in similar 10-year average gains with yearling steers. During seven of ten years the steers receiving sorghum grain gained as much or more than cottonseed meal-fed steers. In the other three years animals fed cottonseed meal gained more during the supplementation period. This work indicates the occurrence of significant interactions in supplementation studies on native range in areas with variable climatic conditions. Specifically, the experiments suggest that if rainfall has been high and lush grass growth is present during late summer, animal response to a high protein supplement is greater than to an energy supplement. On the other hand, supplementing with grain appears as beneficial and less expensive than cottonseed meal in dry years.
    • Sulfur Needs of Spanish Clover and the Relation of Sulfur to Other Nutrients as Diagnosed by Plant Analysis

      Hylton, L. O.; Cornelius, D. R.; Ulrich, A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Sulfur needs of Spanish clover, Lotus purshianus (Benth.) Clements and Clements, were determined by plant analysis in a nutrient solution study. Top growth was affected more than root growth by changes in S supply. Protein synthesis in the shoots was affected little by S deficiency. Sulfate-S was better than organic-S or total-S to diagnose the S status of the plant adequately. The critical sulfate-S concentration for growth of the plant is about 100 ppm, dry basis, in the middle stem section of the shoots.
    • Spraying and Seeding High Elevation Tarweed Rangelands

      Hull, A. C.; Cox, H. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Twenty methods of seeding high-elevation tarweed infested ranges were tested over a 10-year period on a harsh site in southeastern Idaho. The most practical method was spraying in the spring with 1.5 to 2 lb/acre of 2,4-D, drilling in the fall without further seedbed preparation, and respraying with 1 lb/acre of 2,4-D the next spring. This method also gave excellent results when tested on eight large-scale seedings.
    • Reed Canarygrass vs. Grass-Legume Mixtures Under Irrigation as Pasture for Sheep

      Hubbard, W. A.; Nicholson, H. H. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Yearling Romnelet wethers were used to compare reed canarygrass and brome-orchard-ladino with two levels of nitrogen and ladino clover as additives to the reed canarygrass for three consecutive years. When all factors were taken into account the brome-orchard-ladino gave the most satisfactory results followed closely by the reed canarygrass-ladino clover mixture. Reed canarygrass alone produced the lowest number of sheep days over a three-year period and the lowest actual gains per hectare. The reed canarygrass plus 300 kg of N/ha produced the highest actual weight gain, 640 kg/ha, and the greatest number of sheep days, 2,240. However, the nitrogen fertilizer cost $84.00/ha, which cannot be justified in terms of additional T.D.N. produced. Ladino clover not only makes a substantial contribution to the total dry matter produced but also provides nutrients in the form of nitrogen for the reed canarygrass in the mixture.
    • Range Research in the Next 20 Years

      McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Range Research faces a challenge to help maintain a healthy range livestock industry and productive use of rangelands for water yields, wildlife, and recreation. Research findings could well mean the difference between a declining resource and a realization of potential productivity from rangelands, worldwide.
    • Planning, Programming, Budgeting System

      Hooper, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      In August 1965, President Johnson issued a memorandum directing the heads of all government departments, bureaus, and agencies to install a programmed budgeting system better known as Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS). Now, more than two years later, very few range technicians or scientists know what PPBS is, nor do they know how it will affect their work. The PPBS system is explained and a reading list is included for those persons interested in pursuing the subject further.
    • Mid-Summer Diet of Deer on the Welder Wildlife Refuge

      Drawe, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      The mid-summer food habits of white-tailed deer on the Welder Wildlife Refuge were studied by rumen analysis, using the point analysis method. Preference ratings were developed from the data collected. Deer diet in relation to soil type was: clay areas 70% forbs, 22% browse, and 8% grasses; and sandy areas 53% forbs, 45% browse, and 2% grasses. Seven species from the combined sand and clay areas made up 50% of the deer diet. Mast averaged 29% of the diet from the combined sand and clay areas.
    • Grazing Profiles in Aegean Turkey

      Pringle, W. L.; Cornelius, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Ranges of Aegean Turkey are dominated largely by annual vegetation which is replaced by shrub cover through overuse. Removal of the shrub Poterium spinosum by hand grubbing costs $40/acre and the returns from such improvement will pay for this cost in just over 3 years. Grazing on a range after 2 years protection which was dominated by Hordeum bulbosum was leased at $2.50/A.U.M. This land carried 1.6 A.U.M./acre. There is a great need for a concerted range program; some practical suggestions are made as to how this should be carried out.
    • Food Habits of White-Tailed Deer in South Texas

      Chamrad, A. D.; Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      White-tailed deer were primarily grazers, rather than browsers, during the winter-spring periods of 1963, 1964, and 1965, in South Texas. There were only minor differences in distribution of major forage classes in deer diets from distinct range site groups, but major differences existed in species composition of diets in relation to site. Complexity of diet reduced the importance of any one or several species in the diet. Among high priority forage species, perennials were more important than annuals. Deer food habits varied according to availability and phenology of range vegetation, and were further modified by forage preferences.
    • Effects of Clipping on Yield and Tillering of Little Bluestem, Big Bluestem, and Indiangrass

      Vogel, W. G.; Bjugstad, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Clipping little bluestem, big bluestem, and indiangrass for 3 successive years at the seed-ripened stage or later increased yields and spring-initiated tillering of plants in a prairie-like glade grassland in the Missouri Ozarks. Clipping at any time during the summer reduced yields, but clipping between floral initiation and anthesis was the most damaging to plants.
    • Effect of Post-Emergence Weed Control on Grass Establishment in North-Central Colorado

      McGinnies, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Winter-fallowing, planting grass into a clean seedbed, and controlling weeds during the seedling year, has been a particularly successful range-improvement practice in north-central Colorado. During the 3-year period (1964-1966), season-long hand weeding and spraying with 2,4-D when weeds were 6 to 12 inches high produced good stands in a year of average precipitation. However, neither spraying at later dates nor mowing the weeds at any date reduced competition from weeds sufficiently to produce a satisfactory grass stand. In a wet year, weed control in the seedling stand was not beneficial. In a year of extreme drouth, satisfactory stands were not obtained with any level of weed control. It was concluded that a technique of planting into a clean seedbed and spraying to control broadleaf weeds during the seedling year of the grasses offers the best chance for a successful seeding if wind erosion does not become a serious problem.
    • Control of Parry Rabbitbrush on Mountain Grasslands of Western Colorado

      Paulsen, H. A.; Miller, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Parry rabbitbrush was controlled with Tordon 22-K at 2 lb/acre. Treatments significantly increased grass, with a corresponding decrease in forbs.
    • A Hand Seed Divider and Method for Planting Experimental Plots

      Kerbs, Roger R.; Messner, Harold E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-05-01)
      Quick, precise, and even seed distribution was obtained with a plastic seeding device and wood trough, both of which cost less than $7 for material and required less than four man-hours for construction. These two items appreciably reduced the time required to plant grasses and legumes on small experimental plots.