• A Permanent Plot for Measurement of Vegetation Change

      Severson, K. E.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
    • Are You Really Concerned About Your Society?

      Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
    • Bias in Estimates of Herbage Utilization

      Smith, Dixie R. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      The ocular estimate by plot method may be biased by the lack of proper weighting procedures. The nature and magnitude of bias is related to sample size, the variability and distribution of yield, and correlation between herbage production and use by livestock. To form unbiased estimates of the population mean, individual estimates must be weighted by production.
    • Competition and Fertilization as Influences on Grass Seedlings

      Bryan, G. G.; McMurphy, W. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Nitrogen and phosphorus starter fertilizer with two levels of weed competition in seedings of five grass species were evaluated by stand counts, total sod reserves, and subsequent forage yields. Weed competition reduced the stand of fertilized switchgrass but did not affect the stand of any other grass on any fertilized treatment. Weed competition, primarily crabgrass, reduced total sod reserves in big bluestem, indiangrass, and M-blend bluestem. The second year's forage production of all species was reduced to 28 to 70% of the production from weed free plots. Fertilization did not improve the stand establishment but did increase the forage yield of weeping lovegrass, switchgrass, and indiangrass.
    • Control of Dalmatian Toadflax

      Robocker, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Trials of several chemicals over a 6-year period showed that phenoxypropionic herbicides were superior to phenoxyacetic herbicides in controlling Dalmatian toadflax. Satisfactory control was obtained with silvex at a minimum rate of 3 lb/acre. Rates of silvex required to significantly reduce or control the plant did no significant injury to perennial grasses. Picloram applied in granular form to the soil in the fall was more effective than a foliar application at the same rate in the spring. A combination of silvex plus picloram, 2 plus 0.5 or 2 plus 0.25 lb/acre, respectively, also controlled Dalmatian toadflax. Cultural and managerial, as well as chemical control methods may be necessary for economic and effective control of the plant.
    • Effect of Clipping on Herbage and Flower Stalk Production of Three Summer Range Forbs

      Julander, O. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Unclipped forbs produced more herbage and flower stalks over a 10-year period than plants clipped 50, 75, and 90%. Herbage production by the plants clipped 75 and 90% decreased rapidly over the years and few mature seeds were produced after 3 or 4 years of treatment. Ligusticum and valerian can apparently stand about 50% use each year, but geranium should be grazed somewhat less.
    • Effects of 2,4-D on Emergence and Seedling Growth of Range Grasses

      Klomp, G. J.; Hull Jr. , A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      In a tarweed infested soil in the greenhouse, intermediate and crested wheatgrass and smooth brome seedlings growing with tarweed were sprayed with 2,4-D at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 lb/A when seedlings had 1 to 2, 2 to 4, or 5 to 10 leaves. Tarweed was controlled at all rates. With simulated fall seedling, the higher the rate of 2,4-D and the younger the grass, the greater the injury to the grass. With simulated spring seeding, all rates of 2,4-D damaged the grass, but spraying at 0.5 or 1 lb/A of 2,4-D just after seeding resulted in the least damage. The field study indicated that .5 lb/A 2,4-D killed 90% of the tarweed; 1 lb/A killed 95% and 2 lb/A killed 99%. Rate of spraying had little effect on survival of the grass.
    • Food Habits of Juvenile Sage Grouse

      Klebenow, D. A.; Gray, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      This study indicated the importance of forbs to sage grouse chicks. Only during the first week of a sage grouse's life did insects predominate in the diet. After that week, forbs became the most important food. Shrubs were taken in small amounts at first but progressively increased in importance as the chicks grew older. In sage grouse management, it is important that we recognize that forbs are a necessary part of the habitat.
    • Forage Potential of Irrigated Blue Grama with Nitrogen Fertilization

      Lehman, O. R.; Bond, J. J.; Eck, H. V. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      In 1959, ammonium nitrate was surface applied to blue grama at rates of 0, 200, 400, and 800 lb N/acre. Initial plant response to fertilizer N was measured in 1959, and residual response in 1960 and 1961. High moisture levels were maintained by irrigation. Each increment of applied N increased forage yields and yield trends indicate that with adequate water and N blue grama will produce at least 7,500 lb/acre/year of oven-dry forage. Recovery of added N was very low, ranging from 28 to 34% for the 200- and 800-lb rates, respectively. Total water use was similar for all treatments, but pounds of forage produced per inch of water used increased with each increment of N. The results indicate blue grama is a relatively inefficient user of moisture and N when compared with sudan grass, bermuda grass, and some other introduced grasses. However, further studies are needed to determine if blue grama can be managed to use fertilizer and water more efficiently.
    • Influence of Phosphorus Fertilizer Placement on Sub-irrigated Meadows

      Moore, A. W.; Brouse, E. M.; Rhoades, H. F. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      On two Nebraska sub-irrigated meadows drilling phosphorus fertilizer at a depth of 3 to 4 inches resulted in lower dry matter yields and lower percentages of phosphorus as compared with surface application. By labelling superphosphate (35 lb P/ac) with 32 P it was shown that grasses, which constituted the bulk of the forage, took up less fertilizer phosphorus when the latter was drilled in than when applied on the surface.
    • Invasion of Grassland by Baccharis pilularis DC

      McBride, Joe; Heady, Harold F. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      A remeasurement of transects established in 1952 and a comparison of early vegetation maps with maps prepared in 1961 indicate that a brush species, Baccharis pilularis, has invaded grassland areas of the East Bay Regional Parks near Oakland, California. The common movement of the species has been as an advancing front on exposed soil occurring at baccharis-grassland boundaries. Experiments with controlled burning and with grazing animals show that baccharis seedlings and young plants are very susceptible to damage from these factors. These experiments support the hypothesis that baccharis has increased due to the reduction of wildfires and the elimination of grazing in the parks. There is need for management to preserve remaining grasslands in the park.
    • Long Term Effects of 2,4-D on Lanceleaf Rabbitbrush and Associated Species

      Laycock, W. A.; Phillips, T. A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      If properly applied, 2,4-D reduces rabbitbrush and forbs and allows grass to increase. This would be a desirable management tool on cattle ranges. The most effective kill of rabbitbrush was obtained with a treatment applied in June 1956 when soil was moist and when rabbitbrush was nearly in full leaf. When soil was dry and rabbitbrush was in bloom, spraying had no effect. Spraying before rabbitbrush was in full leaf reduced forbs but increased production of rabbitbrush.
    • Managing Grazing Resources for Profit on Commercial Timberlands

      Smith, Herbert B. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Grazing income from commercial timberlands is a source of revenue to a commercial timberland owner. However, grazing plays a minor role and is subordinate to the management and harvesting of timber. The grazing lease itself is an expression of the timberland owner's policy and is an important tool used in managing the grazing resource. Harvesting forage utilized by big game can be accomplished by leasing cabin sites to selected individuals.
    • Outline for Autecological Studies of Range Grasses

      West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Complete autecological life history studies are necessary to overcome less obvious bottlenecks and enhance control or revegetation of important range plants. An outline of research needed for range grasses is given. This outline is guiding co-operative, multi-state studies of galleta and bluebunch wheatgrass.
    • Plains Pricklypear: Relation to Grazing Intensity and Blue Grama Yield on Central Great Plains

      Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      Twenty-five years of light, moderate, and heavy grazing by cattle have had little effect on abundance of pricklypear at Central Plains Experimental Range. Pricklypear was removed from heavily infested sandy-loam and clay-loam soils; blue grama yields were measured in each of the five following years. Pricklypear removal did not increase blue-grama yield, but did make more forage available to the cattle.
    • Time of Fertilizer Application on Desert Grasslands

      Stroehlein, J. L.; Ogden, P. R.; Billy, B. (Society for Range Management, 1968-03-01)
      In most fertilization studies on desert grasslands, little attention has been paid to soil moisture conditions at the time of application. Results have been highly variable and fertilization has not been accepted as an economical management practice. These studies were designed to determine if the time of application could be adjusted to soil moisture conditions in order to insure maximum response to fertilization. In general, fertilization of desert grasslands after the start of the summer rainy season gave best results in three of four sites studied. Applying fertilizer after soil moisture is present helps prevent fertilizer losses during a dry season. Maximum response to the fertilizer is assured because application is just prior to the time of the greatest demand for nutrients.