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dc.contributor.authorCrimmins, Theresa M.
dc.contributor.authorCrimmins, Michael A.
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-06T01:13:00Z
dc.date.available2019-12-06T01:13:00Z
dc.date.issued2019-11-06
dc.identifier.citationCrimmins, T. M., & Crimmins, M. A. (2019). Biologically‐relevant trends in spring time temperatures across the United States. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 12,377–12,387. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL085251en_US
dc.identifier.issn0094-8276
dc.identifier.doi10.1029/2019gl085251
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/636280
dc.description.abstractLong‐term trends in temperature—a primary driver of phenology—are typically evaluated using monthly or seasonal averages. However, accumulated warmth, rather than average temperature, cues phenological events; further, the amount of heat necessary to trigger activity is species‐specific. We evaluated trends in the timing of three heat accumulation thresholds encompassing spring‐season biological activity in the conterminous United States over a 70‐year period to document changes from a biologically relevant perspective. The Southwest, Northeast, and Northwest regions exhibit the strongest advancements. Rates of change vary among thresholds within many regions, resulting in temporal compression and lengthening within the season. Further, in the Eastern United States, the days between when a single threshold is met in the south and north are decreasing; in the West, the opposite pattern is occurring. These trends generally match long‐term observations of species' phenology, underscoring the value of this approach for documenting biologically relevant changes in temperature.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383]; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program [NA17OAR4310288]; Climate Assessment for the Southwest program at the University of Arizonaen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherAMER GEOPHYSICAL UNIONen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2019. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectgrowing degree daysen_US
dc.subjectthresholdsen_US
dc.subjectspring seasonen_US
dc.subjectphenologyen_US
dc.subjecttrendsen_US
dc.titleBiologically‐Relevant Trends in Springtime Temperatures Across the United Statesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Environm Scien_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environmen_US
dc.identifier.journalGEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERSen_US
dc.description.note6 month embargo; published online: 6 November 2019en_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.volume46
dc.source.issue21
dc.source.beginpage12377-12387


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