Motivational Factors of Eating and Exercise Behaviors of Non-obese and Obese Young Adults
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractPurpose/Aims: Identify motivational factors of non-obese (BMI 18.5-29) and obese (BMI ≥ 30) young adults (20-25 years) of eating and exercise behavior. Specific aims: 1) Compare differences in motivational styles of eating and exercise behavior in two groups of young adults, non-obese and obese, 2) Compare motivational styles controlling for eating and exercise behaviors that moderate the relationship between motivational styles and BMI. Background: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic without adequate prevention or treatment. Motivational styles of non-obese and obese young adults of eating and exercise behaviors are not fully understood. Organismic Integrated Theory (OIT), a sub theory of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) are human motivation theories used in this study to examine motivational styles. It is hypothesized that non-obese will rate their intrinsic motivation high and obese will rate their extrinsic motivation high. Methods: A comparative descriptive design was used to investigate motivation of eating and exercise behavior in two groups of young adults. Participants completed a demographic survey and three motivation surveys. The three motivation surveys included General (Global) Motivation Scale (GMS), Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale (REBS), and Exercise Regulation Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Logistic regression was used to examine motivational styles in these two groups. Results: Demographic data analysis found significant differences between both groups with having an obese family member, level of education, and medical condition influencing weight. Logistic regression analysis of motivational styles of REBS found those who ranked their external motivation high were 1.5 times likely to be obese. Logistic regression analysis of motivational styles of BREQ-3 found those who ranked their external motivation high were 2.4 times likely to be obese. On the other hand, those who ranked their integrated motivation high were 0.41 times likely to be obese. Implications: Nurse practitioners (NPs) can coach obese young adult patients by examining motivational style through an autonomously supportive relationship and motivational interviewing (MI). Obesity in youth increases risk of obesity in adulthood and habits adopted at a young age may transition into adulthood. Therefore, research, prevention and treatment need to focus on the young.
Degree ProgramGraduate College