The SPIRITS Sample of Luminous Infrared Transients: Uncovering Hidden Supernovae and Dusty Stellar Outbursts in Nearby Galaxies
AuthorJencson, Jacob E.
Kasliwal, Mansi M.
Adams, Scott M.
Bond, Howard E.
Lau, Ryan M.
Ryder, Stuart D.
Cody, Ann Marie
Masci, Frank J.
Gehrz, Robert D.
Kilpatrick, Charles D.
Milne, Peter A.
Perley, Daniel A.
Phillips, M. M.
van Dyk, Schuyler D.
Williams, Robert E.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
supernovae: individual (SPIRITS 14buu, SPIRITS 15c, SPIRITS 15ud, SPIRITS 16ix; SPIRITS 16tn, SPIRITS 17lb)
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationJacob E. Jencson et al 2019 ApJ 886 40
RightsCopyright © 2019. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
AbstractWe present a systematic study of the most luminous (M-IR [Vega magnitudes] brighter than ?14) infrared (IR) transients discovered by the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) between 2014 and 2018 in nearby galaxies (D < 35 Mpc). The sample consists of nine events that span peak IR luminosities of M-[4.5],M-peak between ?14 and ?18.2, show IR colors between 0.2;<;([3.6]?[4.5]);<;3.0, and fade on timescales between 55 days;t(fade);<;480 days. The two reddest events (A(V) > 12) show multiple, luminous IR outbursts over several years and have directly detected, massive progenitors in archival imaging. With analyses of extensive, multiwavelength follow-up, we suggest the following possible classifications: five obscured core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), two erupting massive stars, one luminous red nova, and one intermediate-luminosity red transient. We define a control sample of all optically discovered transients recovered in SPIRITS galaxies and satisfying the same selection criteria. The control sample consists of eight CCSNe and one Type;Iax SN. We find that 7 of the 13 CCSNe in the SPIRITS sample have lower bounds on their extinction of 2;A(V);<;8. We estimate a nominal fraction of CCSNe in nearby galaxies that are missed by optical surveys as high as <CDATA<i (90% confidence). This study suggests that a significant fraction of CCSNe may be heavily obscured by dust and therefore undercounted in the census of nearby CCSNe from optical searches.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA); National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF)
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SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J.; Masci, Frank; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-03-15)SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey-SPIRITS-is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous (M-[4.5] = -17.1 +/- 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] - [4.5] = 3.0 +/- 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC. 2163 (D approximate to 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (approximate to 8400 km s(-1)), double-peaked emission line of He I at 1.083 mu m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of approximate to 200 days. Assuming an A(V) = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]-[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous (M-4.5 = -16.1 +/- 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting greater than or similar to 80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type. IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A(V) approximate to 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that greater than or similar to 18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.
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