Process Modeling of Forward Osmosis and Pressure Retarded Osmosis Integration with Seawater Reverse Osmosis
pressure retarded osmosis
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractOsmotically driven membrane processes, like forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis, may hold key advantages when integrated with reverse osmosis for seawater desalination. The spiral-wound membrane platform in which these processes are applied has inherent disadvantages that need to be explored. Maintaining proper operating pressure in both of the fluid channels of a spiral-wound membrane requires the feed and draw streams to be operated at different flow rates, often as drastic as a 1:10 ratio. This affects the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system and drastically affects potential water and energy recovery. In this work, a model was created to rigorously represent spiral-wound membranes to increase modeling accuracy. A process configuration that features periodic recharging of the stream inside of the envelope is proposed to mitigate the effects of the flow rate difference. The model is used to compare the multi-stage design to single-stage configurations for both forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis by testing various feed and draw flow rate ratios, between 1:10 to 1:1, operated by each process as well as important membrane characteristics such as channel height and water and salt permeability. The multi-stage design shows an increase in wastewater utilization from 62.6% to 90% when compared to the single-stage designs for forward osmosis. Additionally, the multi-stage configuration increases the pressure retarded osmosis specific energy recovery from 0.13 kWh/m3 to 0.55 kWh/m3. However, the increased effectiveness of these multi-staged designs comes with a reduction in average water flux and power density, which leads to the requirement of more membrane area and capital investment for potential system implementation.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Use of Reverse Osmosis to Increase the Brix Content of Sweet Sorghum Sugar SolutionLivingston, Peter; Slack, Donald; Ahrensdorf, Taylor Jay; Hodeaux, Jacob Michael; Hottenstein, John David (The University of Arizona., 2014)
Application of Direct Osmosis: Possibilities for Reclaiming Wellton-Mohawk Drainage WaterMoody, C. D.; Kessler, J. O.; School of Renewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1975-04-12)A direct osmosis plant can reclaim twenty to thirty thousand acre feet of Wellton-Mohawk brackish drainage water using no more nitrogen fertilizer than is normally used in the Yuma, Coachella valley, Imperial Valley and the bordering Mexican areas. On a per-acre basis ammonium sulfate-driven direct osmosis can reclaim about one percent of the total irrigation requirement from 3000 ppm brackish water. In addition to the ammonium sulfate-driven direct osmosis efficiency, the by-product energy recovery of the manufacture of the fertilizer and the low technology inherent in direct osmosis processes make direct osmosis an appealing water reclaiming process.
Applications of Direct Osmosis: Design Characteristics for Hydration and DehydrationKessler, J. O; Moody, C. D.; School of Renewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1975-04-12)In direct (normal, forward) osmosis water automatically flows through a semipermeable membrane from a "source" solution of low concentration to a "driving" solution with higher solute content. The process requires a membrane which is impermeable to the solutes; hydrostatic pressure differences are not directly involved and can be set equal to zero. In principle, direct osmosis is a low -technology, low-power consumption method for reducing the water volume of industrial effluents or liquid agricultural products, and for reclaiming brackish irrigation water. In the latter application the driving solution may utilize fertilizer as a solute; the source solution is drainage that contains harmful salt components. This type of operation has been experimentally demonstrated. This paper summarizes basic physical principles and introduces some quantitative design factors which must be understood on both a fundamental and on an applications level.