Reduction of Arcobacter at Two Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Arizona, USA
AuthorGhaju Shrestha, Rajani
Sherchan, Samendra P
Gerba, Charles P
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Water & Energy Sustainable Technol Ctr
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CitationGhaju Shrestha, R.; Sherchan, S.P.; Kitajima, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Gerba, C.P.; Haramoto, E. Reduction of Arcobacter at Two Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Arizona, USA. Pathogens 2019, 8, 175.
RightsCopyright © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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AbstractThis study aimed to identify the bacterial community in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the occurrence and reduction of Arcobacter, along with virulence genes (ciaB and pldA). A total of 48 samples (24 influent and 24 effluent) were collected at two WWTPs in southern Arizona in the United States, monthly from August 2011 to July 2012. Bacterial DNA extract was utilized for 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. Quantification of Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene was conducted using a recently developed SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR assay. Among 847 genera identified, 113 (13%) were identified as potentially pathogenic bacteria. Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene was detected in all influent samples and ten (83%) and nine (75%) effluent samples at each plant, respectively. Log reduction ratios of Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene in Plant A and Plant B were 1.7 ± 0.9 (n = 10) and 2.3 ± 1.5 (n = 9), respectively. The ciaB gene was detected by quantitative PCR in eleven (92%) and twelve (100%) of 12 influent samples from Plant A and Plant B, respectively, while the pldA gene was detected in eight (67%) and six (50%) influent samples from Plant A and Plant B, respectively. The prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in WWTP effluent indicated the need for disinfection before discharge into the environment.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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