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dc.contributor.authorLavvas, Panayotis
dc.contributor.authorKoskinen, Tommi
dc.contributor.authorSteinrueck, Maria E.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía Muñoz, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorShowman, Adam P.
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-24T20:29:55Z
dc.date.available2020-02-24T20:29:55Z
dc.date.issued2019-06-20
dc.identifier.citationPanayotis Lavvas et al 2019 ApJ 878 118en_US
dc.identifier.issn0004-637X
dc.identifier.doi10.3847/1538-4357/ab204e
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/637080
dc.description.abstractWe study the properties of photochemical hazes in super-Earth/mini-Neptune atmospheres with particular focus on GJ 1214b. We evaluate photochemical haze properties at different metallicities between solar and 10,000x.solar. Within the four-order-of-magnitude change in metallicity, we find that the haze precursor mass fluxes change only by a factor of similar to 3. This small diversity occurs with a nonmonotonic manner among the different metallicity cases, reflecting the interaction of the main atmospheric gases with the radiation field. Comparison with relative haze yields at different metallicities from laboratory experiments reveals a qualitative similarity to our theoretical calculations and highlights the contributions of different gas precursors. Our haze simulations demonstrate that higher metallicity results in smaller average particle sizes. Metallicities at and above 100x solar with haze formation yields of similar to 10% provide enough haze opacity to satisfy transit observations at visible wavelengths and obscure sufficiently the H2O molecular absorption features between 1.1 and 1.7 mu m. However, only the highest-metallicity case considered (10,000x.solar) brings the simulated spectra into closer agreement with transit depths at 3.6 and 4.5 mu m, indicating a high contribution of CO/CO2 in GJ 1214b's atmosphere. We also evaluate the impact of aggregate growth in our simulations, in contrast to spherical growth, and find that the two growth modes provide similar transit signatures (for D-f = 2), but with different particle size distributions. Finally, we conclude that the simulated haze particles should have major implications for the atmospheric thermal structure and for the properties of condensation clouds.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherIOP PUBLISHING LTDen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2019. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://iopscience.iop.org/info/page/text-and-data-mining
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: atmospheresen_US
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: gaseous planetsen_US
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: individual (GJ 1214b)en_US
dc.titlePhotochemical Hazes in Sub-Neptunian Atmospheres with a Focus on GJ 1214ben_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Laben_US
dc.identifier.journalASTROPHYSICAL JOURNALen_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.journaltitleThe Astrophysical Journal
dc.source.volume878
dc.source.issue2
dc.source.beginpage118
refterms.dateFOA2020-02-24T20:29:55Z


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