KeywordsLettuce -- Economic aspects -- West (U.S.) -- Statistics.
Lettuce industry -- West (U.S.) -- Statistics.
Lettuce -- Economic aspects.
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Series/Report no.Report (University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station) No. 113
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Population Growth of Lettuce, Nasonovia ribisnigris, on Resistant Butter and Head Lettuce CultivarsPalumbo, John C.; Hannan, Todd A.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-08)Studies to examine lettuce aphid population growth on resistant head and butter lettuce cultivars were conducted in small filed plots at the Yuma Agricultural Center. By artificially infesting plants on several lettuce plantings during the spring, the influence of the resistant lettuce plants were evaluated for their capability of preventing lettuce aphid populations from colonizing plants. Results of five field trials showed that several varieties of head and butter lettuce have been developed that almost completely prevent lettuce aphids from surviving and reproducing on plants during the spring. Although the cultivars tested did not posses marketable characteristic for harvests, they do provide germplasm for breeding new varieties suited for desert production. In addition, these studies also support conclusions drawn from the past several seasons that suggest lettuce aphid population growth is greatest when ambient temperatures average between 65-70 °F.
Neonicotinoids and Azadirachtin in Lettuce: Comparison of Application Methods for Control of Lettuce AphidsPalumbo, John C.; Reyes, F. J.; Mullis, C. H. Jr.; Amaya, A.; Ledesma, L.; Carey, L.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Department of Entomology, Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)Several small-plot field studies were conducted at the University of Arizona, Yuma Agricultural Center in the spring 2001 growing season to evaluate various neonicotinoids and azadirachtin products against lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, in lettuce. Further, these products were compared as soil-applied treatments, foliar sprays and application through sub-surface irrigation. The results of these trials provide useful information for understanding how to effectively use the new chemistries available for aphid management in lettuce. First, Platinum performed best as a post-planting application through a side-dress application or through the drip. The foliar neonicotinoids, Assail and Actara were active against lettuce aphids, but were most effective when populations densities were lower. Comparatively, the conventional chemistries (MSR, Orthene/Provado, Provado/Endosulfan) provided consistent control when used aggressively. The azadirachtin products were significantly less effective against LA in head lettuce due largely to their inability to contact the insects, but on formulation (AzaDirect) showed better efficacy when applied through drip irrigation or sprayed repeatedly in romaine lettuce.
Influence of Planting Date and Insecticidal Control on Seasonal Abundance of Lettuce Aphids on Head LettucePalumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-08)Small plot studies were conducted from 1999-2001 to examine the population abundance and control of the lettuce aphid on winter and spring head lettuce crops. In each year, Seven, 0.25 acre planting of head lettuce were established beginning in Sep-Oct with final harvest occurring in April. Replicated plots within several planting were treated with an Admire treatment at planting, a side dress application of Platinum post-planting or allowed to remain untreated. Lettuce aphids were first detected in our experimental area in December in PD 3 in 2001, but in 2002 first occurred in lettuce almost 2 months later (Feb 21). Similarly, lettuce aphid abundance was much greater in 2001 than in 2002, probably a result of temperature difference. Temperature had an important influence upon lettuce aphid development based on our field observations. Population appeared to increase in early March when the average daily temperature was about 65 E F. We observed a sharp decline in population abundance in April where daytime highs exceeded 90E F. Insecticide treatments also influenced seasonal abundance. Under heavy aphid pressure in 2001, lettuce treated with Admire in the early planting dates appeared to prevent lettuce aphids from significantly infesting lettuce heads at harvest. However, lettuce aphids in the last 3 planting dates were able to colonize plants and infest a larger proportion of heads at levels not considered commercially acceptable. Under lighter pressure in 2002, lettuce aphids did not significantly colonize Admire treated lettuce. Green peach aphid, potato aphid and foxglove aphids were also present in both years, but seldom reached economic levels, and where completely controlled in plots treated with soil, systemic insecticides.