AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherOXFORD UNIV PRESS
CitationEmma R Beasor, Ben Davies, Nathan Smith, Jacco Th van Loon, Robert D Gehrz, Donald F Figer, A new mass-loss rate prescription for red supergiants, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 492, Issue 4, March 2020, Pages 5994–6006, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa255
RightsCopyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
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AbstractEvolutionary models have shown the substantial effect that strong mass-loss rates (Ms) can have on the fate of massive stars. Red supergiant (RSG) mass-loss is poorly understood theoretically, and so stellar models rely on purely empirical M luminosity relations to calculate evolution, Empirical prescriptions usually scale with luminosity and effective temperature, but M should also depend on the current mass and hence the surface gravity of the star, yielding more than one possible M for the same position on the Itertzsprung Russell diagram. One can solve this degeneracy by measuring M for RSGs that reside in clusters, where age and initial mass (Minis) are known. In this paper we derive M values and luminosities for RSGs in two clusters, NGC 2004 and RSGC1. Using newly derived Minis measurements, we combine the results with those of clusters with a range of ages and derive an Minis-dependent M prescription. When comparing this new prescription to the treatment of mass-loss currently implemented in evolutionary models, we find models drastically overpredict the total mass-loss, by up to a factor of 20. Importantly, the most massive RSGs experience the largest downward revision in their mass-loss rates, drastically changing the impact of wind mass-loss on their evolution. Our results suggest that for most initial masses of RSG progenitors, quiescent mass-loss during the RSG phase is not effective at removing a significant fraction of the H-envelope prior to core-collapse, and we discuss the implications of this for stellar evolution and observations of SNe and SN progenitors.
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