• Gain and loss of uranium by meteorites and rocks, and implications for the redistribution of uranium on Mars

      Dreibus, G.; Haubold, R.; Huisl, W.; Spettel, B. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Terrestrial alteration of meteorites results in the redistribution, gain, or loss of uranium and other elements. We have measured the maximum U adsorption capacity of a meteorite and two geochemical reference materials under conditions resembling terrestrial ones (pH 5.8). The basaltic eucrite Sioux County adsorbs 7 ppm of U. The result for the terrestrial granite AC-E is similar (5 ppm), while the basalt BE-N adsorbs 34 ppm of U. We have also investigated U adsorption in the presence of phosphate (0.01 M or less) in imitation of conditions that probably occurred in the earlier history of Mars. Such a process would have alterated Martian surface material and would be noticeable in Martian meteorites from the affected surface. The experiments demonstrated the counteracting effects of phosphate, which increases U adsorption, but decreases the quantity of dissolved U that is available for adsorption. U adsorption by AC-E increases to 7 ppm. The lowered value for BE-N of 8 ppm results from the low quantity of dissolved U in the volume of solution used. The results from the adsorption experiments and from leaching the Martian meteorite Zagami and a terrestrial basalt imply that the aqueous redistribution of U on Mars was moderate. Acidic liquids mobilized uranium and other metals, but present phosphate impeded the dissolution of U compounds. Some mobilized U may have reached the global sinks, while most of it probably was transported in the form of suspended particles over a limited distance and then settled.
    • Galactic cosmic ray-produced 129Xe and 131Xe excesses in troilites of the Cape York iron meteorite

      Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
      The flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in the solar system appears to change with time. Based on the abundances in iron meteorites of cosmogenic nuclides of different half lives, Lavielle et al. (1999) found that the GCR flux increased in recent times (<100 Ma) by about 38% compared to average flux in the past 150 Ma to 700 Ma ago. A promising technique for calibrating the GCR flux during the past ~50 Ma, based on the 129I and 129Xe pair of nuclides, was discussed earlier (Marti 1986; Murty and Marti 1987). The 129I-129Xen chronometer provides a shielding-independent system as long as the exposure geometry remained fixed. It is especially suitable for large iron meteorites (Te-rich troilite) because of the effects by the GCR secondary neutron component. Although GCR-produced Xe components were identified in troilites, several issues require clarifications and improvements; some are reported here. We developed a procedure for achieving small Xe extraction blanks which are required to measure indigenous Xe in troilites. The 129Xe and 131Xe excesses (129Xen, 131Xen) due to neutron reactions in Te are correlated in a stepwise release run during the troilite decomposition. Our data show that indigenous Xe in troilite of Cape York has isotopic abundances consistent with ordinary chondritic Xe (OC-Xe), in contrast to a terrestrial signature which was reported earlier. Two methods are discussed which assess and correct for an interfering radiogenic 129Xer component from extinct 129I. The corrected 129Xen concentration in troilite D4 of Cape York yields a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of 82 +/- 7 Ma consistent, within uncertainties, with reported data (Murty and Marti 1987; Marti et al. 2004).
    • Gamma rays from cosmic radioactivities

      Diehl, R.; Hartmann, D. H.; Prantzos, N. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Gamma rays from radioactive byproducts of cosmic nucleosynthesis are direct messengers from nuclear processes taking place in various cosmic sites, and can be measured with telescopes operated in space. Due to low detector sensitivity, up until now, only a handful of sources have been detected in that electromagnetic window. Cobalt lines from SN1987A and 44Ti lines from the Cassiopeia A (Cas A) supernova remnant offer unique constraints on the properties of the innermost regions of core collapse supernovae. Diffuse gamma-ray lines from the decay of radioactive 26Al and the annihilation of positrons are bright enough for mapping the Milky Way in the MeV regime, and are both measured by recent spaceborne spectrometers with unprecedented precision. This constrains the sources of Al production and the state of interstellar gas in the vicinity of these sites: the total mass of 26Al produced by stellar sources throughout the Galaxy is estimated to be ~3 M(sun) per Myr, and the interstellar medium near those sources appears to be characterized by velocities of ~100 km s^(-1). Positron annihilation must occur in a modestly ionized, warm phase of the interstellar medium, but at present the major positron production site(s) remain unknown. The spatial distribution of the annihilation gamma-ray emission constrains positron production sites and positron propagation in the Galaxy. 60Fe radioactivity has been clearly detected recently; the flux ratio relative to 26Al of about 15% is on the lower side of predictions from massive star and supernova nucleosynthesis models. Those views at nuclear and astrophysical processes in and around cosmic sources by space-based gamma-ray telescopes offer invaluable information on cosmic nucleosynthesis.
    • Gas-melt interactions and their bearing on chondrule formation

      Tissandier, T.; Libourel, G.; Robert, F. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Interactions between nebular gas and molten silictes or oxides coul have played a major role in the formation and differentiation of the first solids formed in the solar system. In order to simulate such interactions, we set up a new experimental device in which isothermal condensation experiments have been conducted. Partially molten chondrule-like samples have been exposed to high SiO(g) partial pressures, for intervals between 80 and 300 s and at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1750 K. Results show that silica entering from the gas phase could be responsible for several textural and mineralogical featues observed in natural chondrules. For instance, these experiments reproduce not only the mineralogical zonation of porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrules with the peripheral location of pyroxenes, but also olivine resorption textures and the common poikilitical enclosure of olivines in pyroxenes. In the light of these similarities, we advocate that gas-melt interactions through condensation are viable mechanisms for chondrule formation and hence may place severe constrains on the history of these primitive objects. In the nebula, high SiO(g) partial pressures could have been established by the volatization of regions with high dust/gas ratio. A possible scenario for this stochastic thermal activity is the intense activity of the protosun in its young stellar object phase.
    • Genesis—An artificial, low velocity "meteor" fall and recovery: September 8, 2004

      ReVelle, D. O.; Edwards, W.; Sandoval, T. D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
      On September 8, 2004, Genesis, a manmade space capsule, plummeted to Earth after almost three years in space. A ground-based infrasound array was deployed to Wendover, Nevada, to measure the "hypersonic boom" from the reentry, since the expected initial reentry speed of the body was about 11 km/sec. Due to the complete failure of its dual parachute system, we had a unique opportunity to assess the degree of reliability of our previously developed relations for natural meteors and bolides to analyze this well-characterized manmade body. At ~20-50 km from the nominal trajectory, we succeeded in recording over two minutes of infrasonic signals from Genesis. Here we report on subsequent analyses of these infrasonic data, including an assessment of the expected entry characteristics on the basis of a bolide/meteor/fireball entry model specifically adapted to modeling reentering manmade objects. From these simulations, we were able to evaluate the line source blast wave relaxation radius, the differential acoustic efficiency, etc., to compute an approximate total power balance during entry. Next, we analyzed the detailed signals arriving from Genesis using a numerical, signal detection and wave processing software package (Matseis/ Infra_Tool). We established the initial and subsequent arrivals and evaluated its plane wave back azimuths and elevation arrival angles and the degree of maximum, pair-wise cross-correlation, its power spectrum, spectrogram analysis, standard seismic f-k analysis, etc. From the associated entryparameters, we computed the kinetic energy density conservation properties for the propagating line source blast waves and compared these predictions against observed ground-based infrasound amplitude and wave period data as a function of range. We discovered that previously computed differential acoustic efficiencies were unreliable at Mach numbers below about 10. This is because we had assumed that a line source explosion was applicable, whereas at very low Mach numbers, typical of recovered meteorites, the detailed source characteristics are closer to those of supersonic objects. When corrections for these unphysical, very high efficiencies were made, agreement between theory and observations improved. We also made an assessment for the energy of the blast wave source from the ground-based infrasound data using several other techniques that were also adapted from previous bolide studies. Finally, we made a top-downbottom-up assessment of the line source wave normals propagating via refraction downward into the complex middle atmospheric environment. This assessment proved to be generally consistent with the digital signal processing analysis and with the observed time delay between the known Genesis reentry and the infrasonic observations.
    • Geochemical and petrographic characteristics of impactites and Cretaceous target rocks from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico: Implications for target composition

      Tuchscherer, M. G.; Reimold, W. U.; Koeberl, C.; Gibson, R. L. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
      We present major and trace element data as well as petrographic observations for impactites (suevitic groundmass, bulk suevite, and melt rock particles) and target lithologies, including Cretaceous anhydrite, dolomite, argillaceous limestone, and oil shale, from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, Chixculub impact structure. The suevitic groundmass and bulk suevite have similar compositions, largely representing mixtures of carbonate and silicate components. The latter are dominated by melt rock particles. Trace element data indicate that dolomitic rocks represented a significant target component that became incorporated into the suevites; in contrast, major elements indicate a strong calcitic component in the impactites. The siliceous end-member requires a mafic component in order to explain the low SiO2 content. Multicomponent mixing of various target rocks, the high alteration state, and dilution by carbonate complicate the determination of primary melt particle compositions. However, two overlapping compositional groups can be discerned--a high-Ba, low-Ta group and a high-Fe, high-Zn, and high-Hf group. Cretaceous dolomitic rocks, argillaceous limestone, and shale are typically enriched in U, As, Br, and Sb, whereas anhydrite contains high Sr contents. The oil shale samples have abundances that are similar to the North American Shale Composite (NASC), but with a comparatively high U content. Clastic sedimentary rocks are characterized by relatively high Th, Hf, Zr, As, and Sb abundances. Petrographic observations indicate that the Cretaceous rocks in the Yaxcopoil-1 drill core likely register a multistage deformation history that spans the period from pre- to post-impact. Contrary to previous studies that claimed evidence for the presence of impact melt breccia injection veins, we have found no evidence in our samples from a depth of 1347-1348 m for the presence of melt breccia. We favor that clastic veinlets occur in a sheared and altered zone that underwent intense diagenetic overprint prior to the impact event.
    • Geochemical characterization of moldavites from a new locality, the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

      Řanda, Zdeněk; Mizera, Jiři; Frána, Jaroslav; Kučera, Jan (The Meteoritical Society, 2008-01-01)
      Twenty-three moldavites from a new locality, the Cheb Basin in Western Bohemia, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for 45 major and trace elements. Detailed comparison of the Cheb Basin moldavites with moldavites from other substrewn fields in both major and trace element composition shows that the Cheb Basin is a separate substrewn field. The geochemical data obtained are discussed with respect to the source materials and processes leading to formation of moldavites. The data show that three groups of Cheb Basin moldavites exist. Ten samples of group 1 are characterized by the lowest content of Al, Fe, Na, and other elements representing phyllosilicate minerals, and by high Ca + Mg contents related probably to carbonates. They resemble the "poisonous green" moldavites, a subgroup of the Southern Bohemian moldavites. Seven samples of group 2 and 6 samples of group 3 are similar to typical moldavites of the Southern Bohemian substrewn field. These two groups differ from each other mainly in Al contents; with higher contents of Al and the elements associated with phyllosilicate minerals (namely Ba and Sr), group 3 also resembles the Moravian moldavites. Significant positive correlations between K, Ca, Mg, and Mn found in group 2 of the Cheb Basin moldavites and the enrichment in these elements observed generally in all moldavites, as well as other facts, e.g., high K/Na and K/Rb ratios and the reduced conditions during formation of moldavites, have been attributed to possible contribution to the moldavite source materials of the ash produced by burning of vegetation and soil organic matter present at the pre-impact area.
    • Geochemical identification of impactor for Lonar crater, India

      Misra, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Shyam Prasad, M. Shyam; Geissman, J. W.; Dube, A.; Sengupta, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
      The only well-known terrestrial analogue of impact craters in basaltic crusts of the rocky planets is the Lonar crater, India. For the first time, evidence of the impactor that formed the crater has been identified within the impact spherules, which are ~0.3 to 1 mm in size and of different aerodynamic shapes including spheres, teardrops, cylinders, dumbbells and spindles. They were found in ejecta on the rim of the crater. The spherules have high magnetic susceptibility (from 0.31 to 0.02 SI-mass) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity. Both NRM and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) intensity are ~2 Am2/kg. Demagnetization response by the NRM suggests a complicated history of remanence acquisition. The spherules show schlieren structure described by chains of tiny dendritic and octahedral-shaped magnetite crystals indicating their quenching from liquid droplets. Microprobe analyses show that, relative to the target basalt compositions, the spherules have relatively high average Fe2O3 (by ~1.5 wt%), MgO (~1 wt%), Mn (~200 ppm), Cr (~200 ppm), Co (~50 ppm), Ni (~1000 ppm) and Zn (~70 ppm), and low Na2O (~1 wt%) and P2O5 (~0.2 wt%). Very high Ni contents, up to 14 times the average content of Lonar basalt, require the presence of a meteoritic component in these spherules. We interpret the high Ni, Cr, and Co abundances in these spherules to indicate that the impactor of the Lonar crater was a chondrite, which is present in abundances of 12 to 20 percent by weight in these impact spherules. Relatively high Zn yet low Na2O and P2O5 contents of these spherules indicate exchange of volatiles between the quenching spherule droplets and the impact plume.
    • Geochemical identification of projectiles in impact rocks

      Tagle, R.; Hecht, L. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      The three major geochemical methods for impactor identification are evaluated with respect to their potential and limitations with regards to the precise detection and identification of meteoritic material in impactites. The identification of a projectile component in impactites can be achieved by determining certain isotopic and elemental ratios in contaminated impactites. The isotopic methods are based on Os and Cr isotopic ratios. Osmium isotopes are highly sensitive for the detection of minute amounts of extraterrestrial components of even <<0.05 wt% in impactites. However, this only holds true for target lithologies with almost no chemical signature of mantle material or young mantle-derived mafic rocks. Furthermore, this method is not currently suitable for the precise identification of the projectile type. The Cr-isotopic method requires the relatively highest projectile contamination (several wt%) in order to detect an extraterrestrial component, but may allow the identification of three different groups of extraterrestrial materials, ordinary chondrites, an enstatite chondrites, and differentiated achondrites. A significant advantage of this method is its independence of the target lithology and post-impact alteration. The use of elemental ratios, including platinum group elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd), in combination with Ni and Cr represents a very powerful method for the detection and identification of projectiles in terrestrial and lunar impactites. For most projectile types, this method is almost independent of the target composition,especially if PGE ratios are considered. This holds true even in cases of terrestrial target lithologies with a high component of upper mantle material. The identification of the projectile is achieved by comparison of the “projectile elemental ratio” derived from the slope of the mixing line (target-projectile) with the elemental ratio in the different types of possible projectiles (e.g., chondrites). However, this requires a set of impactite samples of various degree of projectile contamination.
    • Geochemical variability of the Yucatán basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

      Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2003-01-01)
      The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatán. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatán basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatán basement.
    • Geochemistry and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology of impact-melt clasts in feldspathic lunar meteorites: Implications for lunar bombardment history

      Cohen, B. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Kring, D. A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
      We studied 42 impact-melt clasts from lunar feldspathic regolith breccias MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88105, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93069, Dar al Gani (DaG) 262, and DaG 400 for texture, chemical composition, and/or chronology. Although the textures are similar to the impactmelt clasts identified in mafic Apollo and Luna samples, the meteorite clasts are chemically distinct from them, having lower Fe, Ti, K, and P, thus representing previously unsampled impacts. The 40Ar- 39Ar ages on 31 of the impact melts, the first ages on impact-melt samples from outside the region of the Apollo and Luna sampling sites, range from ~4 to ~2.5 Ga. We interpret these samples to have been created in at least six, and possibly nine or more, different impact events. One inferred impact event may be consistent with the Apollo impact-melt rock age cluster at 3.9 Ga, but the meteorite impact-melt clasts with this age are different in chemistry from the Apollo samples, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the 3.9 Ga peak in lunar impact-melt clast ages is a lunar-wide phenomenon. No meteorite impact melts have ages more than 1 older than 4.0 Ga. This observation is consistent with, but does not require, a lunar cataclysm.
    • Geochemistry and origin of metal, olivine clasts, and matrix in the Dong Ujimqin Qi mesosiderite

      Kong, P.; Su, W.; Li, X.; Spettel, B.; Palme, H.; Tao, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2008-01-01)
      The Dong Ujimqin Qi mesosiderite is the first recorded fall of a stony-iron meteorite in China. According to silicate textures and metal composition, this meteorite is classified as a member of subgroup IB. Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) of metals show that the matrix metal has lower concentrations of Os, Ir, Re, and Pt, but higher concentrations of Ni and Au than the 7.5 cm metal nodule present in the meteorite. We attribute these compositional differences to fractional crystallization of molten metal. Studies of olivine clasts show that FeO contents are uniform in individual olivine crystals but are variable for different olivine clasts. Although concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) change within olivine clasts, they all exhibit a vee-shaped pattern relative to CI chondrites. The relatively high concentrations of REEs in olivine and the shape of REE patterns require a liquid high in REEs and especially in light REEs. As such a liquid was absent from the region where basaltic and gabbroic clasts formed, mesosiderite olivine must have formed in a part of the differentiated asteroid that is different from the location where other mesosiderite silicate clasts formed.
    • Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA:Ejecta from the 74 Ma Manson impact structure

      Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B. J.; Hammond, R. H.; Anderson, R. R. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2 (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA and CIW: 7599), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*+Na2O)-K2O (A-CN-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson), or 0.4 to 2.4 cm (for the estimated transient cavity radius). The trend agrees with the observed thicknesses of the basal unit of the Crow Creek Member, but the actually observed thicknesses are larger than the calculated ones, indicating that not all of the basal unit comprises impact ejecta.
    • Geochemistry of 4 Vesta based on HED meteorites: Prospective study for interpretation of gamma ray and neutron spectra for the Dawn mission

      Usui, Tomohiro; McSween, Harry Y. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Asteroid 4 Vesta, believed to be the parent body of the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, will be investigated by the Dawn orbiting spacecraft. Dawn carries a gamma ray and neutron detector (GRaND) that will measure and map some major- and trace-element abundances. Drawing on HED geochemistry, we propose a mixing model that uses element ratios appropriate for the interpretation of GRaND data.Because the spatial resolution of GRaND is relatively coarse, the analyzed chemical compositions on the surface of Vesta will likely reflect mixing of three endmember components: diogenite, cumulate eucrite, and basaltic eucrite. Reliability of the mixing model is statistically investigated based on published whole-rock data for HED meteorites. We demonstrate that the mixing model can accurately estimate the abundances of all the GRaND-analyzed major elements, as well as of minor elements (Na, Cr, and Mn) not analyzed by this instrument. We also show how a similar mixing model can determine the modal abundance of olivine, and we compare estimated and normative olivine data for olivine-bearing diogenites. By linking the compositions of well-analyzed HED meteorites with elemental mapping data from GRaND, this study may help constrain the geological context for HED meteorites and provide new insight into the magmatic evolution of Vesta.
    • Geochemistry of Darwin glass and target rocks from Darwin crater, Tasmania, Australia

      Howard, K. T. (The Meteoritical Society, 2008-01-01)
      Darwin glass formed about 800,000 years ago in western Tasmania, Australia. Target rocks at Darwin crater are quartzites and slates (Siluro-Devonian, Eldon Group). Analyses show 2 groups of glass, Average group 1 is composed of: SiO2 (85%), Al2O3 (7.3%), TiO2 (0.05%), FeO (2.2%), MgO (0.9%), and K2O (1.8%). Group 2 has lower average SiO2 (81.1%) and higher average Al2O3 (8.2%). Group 2 is enriched in FeO (+1.5%), MgO (+1.3%) and Ni, Co, and Cr. Average Ni (416 ppm), Co (31 ppm), and Cr (162 ppm) in group 2 are beyond the range of sedimentary rocks. Glass and target rocks have concordant REE patterns (La/Lu = 5.910; Eu/Eu* = 0.55-0.65) and overlapping trace element abundances. 87Sr/86Sr ratios for the glasses (0.80778-0.81605) fall in the range (0.76481-1.1212) defined by the rock samples. epsilon-Nd results range from -13.57 to -15.86. Nd model ages range from 1.2-1.9 Ga (CHUR) and the glasses (1.2-1.5 Ga) fall within the range defined by the target samples. The 87Sr/86Sr versus 87Rb/86Sr regression age (411 +/- 42 Ma) and initial ratio (0.725 +/- 0.016), and the initial 43Nd/144Nd ratio (0.51153 +/- 0.00011) and regression age (451 +/- 140 Ma) indicate that the glasses have an inherited isotopic signal from the target rocks at Darwin crater. Mixing models using target rock compositions successfully model the glass for all elements except FeO, MgO, Ni, Co, and Cr in group 2. Mixing models using terrestrial ultramafic rocks fail to match the glass compositions and these enrichments may be related to the projectile.
    • Geochemistry of diogenites: Still more diversity in their parental melts

      Barrat, J. A.; Yamaguchi, A.; Greenwood, R. C.; Benoit, M.; Cotten, J.; Bohn, M.; Franchi, I. A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2008-01-01)
      We report on the major and trace element abundances of 18 diogenites, and O-isotopes for 3 of them. Our analyses extend significantly the diogenite compositional range, both in respect of Mg-rich (e.g., Meteorite Hills [MET] 00425, MgO = 31.5 wt%) and Mg-poor varieties (e.g., Dhofar 700, MgO = 23 wt%). The wide ranges of siderophile and chalcophile element abundances are well explained by the presence of inhomogeneously distributed sulfide or metal grains within the analyzed chips. The behavior of incompatible elements in diogenites is more complex, as exemplified by the diversity of their REE patterns. Apart from a few diogenite samples that contain minute amounts of phosphate, and whose incompatible element abundances are unlike the orthopyroxene ones, the range of incompatible element abundances, and particularly the range of Dy/Yb ratios in diogenites is best explained by the diversity of their parental melts. We estimate that the FeO/MgO ratios of the diogenite parental melts range from about 1.4 to 3.5 and therefore largely overlap the values obtained for non-cumulate eucrites. Our results rule out the often accepted view that all the diogenites formed from parental melts more primitive than eucrites during the crystallization of a magma ocean. Instead, they point to a more complex history, and suggest that diogenites were derived from liquids produced by the remelting of cumulates formed from the magma ocean.
    • Geochemistry of drill core samples from Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico

      Schmitt, R. T.; Wittmann, A.; Stöffler, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The chemical composition of suevites, displaced Cretaceous target rocks, and impactgenerated dikes within these rocks from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill core, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico, is reported and compared with the data from the Yucatán 6 (Y6) samples. Within the six suevite subunits of Yax-1, four units with different chemical compositions can be distinguished: a) upper/lower sorted and upper suevite (depth of 795-846 m); b) middle suevite (depth of 846-861 m); degrees C) brecciated impact melt rock (depth of 861-885 m); and d) lower suevite (depth of 885-895 m). The suevite sequence (a), (b), and (d) display an increase of the CaO content and a decrease of the silicate basement component from top to bottom. In contrast, the suevite of Y6 shows an inverse trend. The different distances of the Yax-1 and Y6 drilling sites from the crater center (~60, and ~47 km, respectively) lead to different suevite sequences. Within the Cretaceous rocks of Yax-1, a suevitic dike (depth of ~916 m) does not display chemical differences when compared with the suevite, while an impact melt rock dike (depth of ~1348 m) is significantly enriched in immobile elements. A clastic breccia dike (depth of ~1316 m) is dominated by material derived locally from the host rock, while the silicate-rich component is similar to that found in the suevite. Significant enrichments of the K2O content were observed in the Yax-1 suevite and the impact-generated dikes. All impactites of Yax-1 and Y6 are mixtures of a crystalline basement and a carbonate component from the sedimentary cover. An anhydrite component in the impactites is missing (Yax-1) or negligible (Y6).
    • Geochemistry of impactites and basement lithologies from ICDP borehole LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

      Coney, L.; Reimold, W. U.; Gibson, R. L.; Koeberl, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      In 2004, a drilling project by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (1.07 Myr old and 10.5 km in diameter), obtained drill core LB-07A, which sampled impactites and underlying metasediments in the crater moat surrounding the small central uplift of the structure. The LB-07A core consists of three sequences: 82.29 m of an upper impactite sequence of alternating polymict lithic and suevitic impact breccias overlying 54.88 m of so-called lower impactite of monomict impact breccia with several suevite intercalations, and 74.53 m of meta-graywacke and altered shale of the basement, also containing a number of suevite intercalations. Major- and trace-element characteristics of all three sequences have been determined to investigate breccia formation and the role of the respective basement lithologies therein. Compositions of polymict impact breccias of the crater fill revealed by core LB-07A are compared with the compositions of the Ivory Coast tektites and the fallout suevites. The impactites of the LB-07A borehole appear well homogenized with respect to the silicate component, and little change in the ranges of many major- and trace-element differences is seen along the length of the borehole (except for Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO contents). Much scatter is observed for a number of elements, and in many cases this increases with depth. It is proposed that any variability in composition is likely the function of clast population differences (i.e., also of relatively small sample sizes). No systematic compositional difference between polymict lithic and suevitic impact breccias is evident. An indication of carbonate enrichment due to hydrothermal alteration is observed in samples from all lithologies. The impactites of the borehole generally show intermediate compositions to previously defined target rocks. The fallout suevites have comparable major element abundances, except for relatively lower MgO contents. The Ivory Coast tektites are generally similar in composition to the LB-07A suevites, but broader ranges in MgO and CaO contents are observed for the LB-07A suevites.
    • Geochemistry of the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Tagish Lake, the anomalous CM chondrite Bells, and comparison with CI and CM chondrites

      Mittlefehldt, David W.; Killgore, Marvin; Lee, Michael T. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      I have determined the composition via INAA of a bulk pristine sample of the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite fall, along with bulk samples of the CI chondrite Orgueil and of several CM chondrites. Tagish Lake has a mean of refractory lithophile element/Cr ratios like those of CM chondrites, and distinctly higher than the CI chondrite mean. Tagish Lake exhibits abundances of the moderately volatile lithophile elements Na and K that are slightly higher than those of mean CM chondrites. Refractory through moderately volatile siderophile element abundances in Tagish Lake are like those of CM chondrites. Tagish Lake is distinct from CM chondrites in abundances of the most volatile element. Mean CI-normalized Se/Co, Zn/Co and Cs/Co for Tagish Lake are 0.68 +/- 0.01, 0.71 +/- 0.07 and 0.76 +/- 0.02, while for all available CM chondrite determinations, these ratios lie between 0.31-0.61, 0.32-0.58 and 0.39-0.74, respectively. Considering petrography, and oxygen isotopic and elemental compositions, Tagish Lake is an ungrouped member of the carbonaceous chondrite clan. The overall abundance pattern is similar to those of CM chondrites, indicating that Tagish Lake and CMs experienced very similar nebular fractionations. Bells is a CM chondrite with unusual petrologic characteristics. Bells has a mean CI-normalized refractory lithophile element/Cr ratio of 0.96, lower than for any other CM chondrite, but shows CI-normalized moderately volatile lithophile element/Cr ratios within the ranges of other CM chondrites, except for Na which is low. Iridium, Co, Ni and Fe abundances are like those of CM chondrites, but the moderately volatile siderophile elements, Au, As and Sb, have abundances below the ranges for CM chondrites. Abundances of the moderately volatile elements Se and Zn of Bells are within the CM ranges. Bells is best classified as an anomalous CM chondrite.
    • Geological and geochemical data from the proposed Sirente crater field: New age dating and evidence for heating of target

      Ormö, Jens; Koeberl, Christian; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Komatsu, Goro (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      The proposed Sirente crater field consists of a slightly oblong main structure (main crater) 120 m in width and about 30 smaller structures (satellite craters), all in unconsolidated but stiff carbonate mud. Here we focus on the subsurface structure of the satellite craters and compare the Sirente field with known meteorite crater fields. We present a more complete outline of the crater field than previously reported, information on the subsurface morphology of a satellite crater (C8) 8 m in width, radiocarbon and thermoluminescence (TL) ages of material from this crater, and evidence for heated material in both crater C8 and the rim of the main crater. Crater C8 has a funnel shape terminating downwards, and evidence for soil injection from the surface to a depth of 9 m. The infill contained dispersed charcoal and small, irregular, porous fragments of heated clay with a calibrated age of B.P. 1712 (13C-corrected radiocarbon age: B.P. 1800 +/- 100) and a TL age of B.P. 1825 (calculated error +/- 274). Together with previous radiocarbon age (B.P. 1538) of the formation of the main crater (i.e., target surface below rim), a formation is suggested at the beginning of the first millennium A.D. Although projectile vaporization is not expected in Sirente-sized craters in this type of target material, we used geochemistry in an attempt to detect a meteoritic component. The results gave no unequivocal evidence of meteoritic material. Nevertheless, the outline of the crater field, evidence of heated material within the craters, and subsurface structure are comparable with known meteorite crater fields.