• Paleomagnetism and petrophysics of the Jänisjärvi impact structure, Russian Karelia

      Salminen, J.; Donadini, F.; Pesonen, L. J.; Masaitis, V. L.; Naumov, M. V. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and petrophysical results are presented for impactites and target rocks from the Lake Jänisjärvi impact structure, Russian Karelia. The impactites (tagamites, suevites, and lithic breccias) are characterized by increased porosity and magnetization, which is in agreement with observations performed at other impact structures. Thermomagnetic, hysteresis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis document the presence of primary multidomain titanomagnetite with additional secondary titanomaghemite and ilmenohematite. The characteristic impact-related remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction (D = 101.5 degrees, I = 73.1 degrees, alpha-95 = 6.2 degrees) yields a pole (Lat. = 45.0mdegrees N, Long. = 76.9 degrees E, dp = 9.9 degrees, dm = 11.0 degrees). Additionally, the same component is observed as an overprint on some rocks located in the vicinity of the structure, which provides proofs of its primary origin. An attempt was made to determine the ancient geomagnetic field intensity. Seven reliable results were obtained, yielding an ancient intensity of 68.7 +/- 7.6 micro-T (corresponding to VDM of 10.3 +/- 1.1 x 10^22 Am^2). The intensity, however, appears to be biased toward high values mainly because of the concave shape of the Arai diagrams. The new paleomagnetic data and published isotopic ages for the structure are in disagreement. According to well-defined paleomagnetic data, two possible ages for magnetization of Jänisjärvi rocks exist: 1) Late Sveconorwegian age (900-850 Myr) or 2) Late Cambrian age (~500 Myr). However, published isotopic ages are 718 +/- 5 Myr (K-Ar) and 698 +/- 22 Myr (39Ar-40Ar), but such isotopic dating methods are often ambiguous for the impactites.
    • Petrographic comparison of refractory inclusions from different chemical groups of chondrites

      Lin, Y.; Kimura, M.; Miao, B.; Dai, D.; Monoi, A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Twenty-four refractory inclusions (40-230 micrometers, with average of 86 +/- 40 micrometers) were found by X-ray mapping of 18 ordinary chondrites. All inclusions are heavily altered, consisting of finegrained feldspathoids, spinel, and Ca-pyroxene with minor ilmenite. The presence of feldspathoids and lack of melilite are due to alteration that took place under oxidizing conditions as indicated by FeO-ZnO-rich spinel and ilmenite. The pre-altered mineral assemblages are dominated by two types: one rich in melilite, referred to as type A-like, and the other rich in spinel, referred to as spinel-pyroxene inclusions. This study and previous data show similar type and size distributions of refractory inclusions in ordinary and enstatite chondrites. A survey of refractory inclusions was also conducted on Allende and Murchison in order to make unbiased comparison with their counterparts in other chondrites. The predominant inclusions are type A and spinel-pyroxene, with average sizes of 170 +/- 130 micrometers (except for two mm-sized inclusions) in Allende and 150 +/- 100 micrometers in Murchison. The relatively larger sizes are partially due to common conglomerating of smaller nodules in both chondrites. The survey reveals closely similar type and size distributions of refractory inclusions in various chondrites, consistent with our previous data of other carbonaceous chondrites. The petrographic observations suggest that refractory inclusions in various groups of chondrites had primarily formed under similar processes and conditions, and were transported to different chondrite-accreting regions. Heterogeneous abundance and distinct alteration assemblages of refractory inclusions from various chondrites could be contributed to transporting processes and secondary reactions under different conditions.
    • Petrographic studies of "fallout" suevite from outside the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

      Boamah, D.; Koeberl, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Field studies and a shallow drilling program carried out in 1999 provided information about the thickness and distribution of suevite to the north of the Bosumtwi crater rim. Suevite occurrence there is known from an ~1.5 km^2 area; its thickness is less than or equal to 15 m. The present suevite distribution is likely the result of differential erosion and does not reflect the initial areal extent of continuous Bosumtwi ejecta deposits. Here we discuss the petrographic characteristics of drill core samples of melt-rich suevite. Macroscopic constituents of the suevites are melt bodies and crystalline and metasedimentary rock (granite, graywacke, phyllite, shale, schist, and possibly slate) clasts up to about 40 cm in size. Shock metamorphic effects in the clasts include multiple sets of planar deformation features (PDFs), diaplectic quartz and feldspar glasses, lechatelierite, and ballen quartz, besides biotite with kink bands. Basement rock clasts in the suevite represent all stages of shock metamorphism, ranging from samples without shock effects to completely shock-melted material that is indicative of shock pressures up to ~60 GPa.
    • Petrography and geochemistry of five new Apollo 16 mare basalts and evidence for post-basin deposition of basaltic material at the site

      Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      We present the petrography and geochemistry of five 2-4 mm basalt fragments from the Apollo 16 regolith. These fragments are 1) a high-Ti vitrophyric basalt compositionally similar to Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts, 2) a very high-Ti vitrophyric basalt compositionally similar to Apollos 12 and 14 red-black pyroclastic glass, 3) a coarsely crystalline high-Al basalt compositionally similar to group 5 Apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts, 4) a very low-Ti (VLT) crystalline basalt compositionally similar to Luna 24 VLT basalts, and 5) a VLT basaltic glass fragment compositionally similar to Apollo 17 VLT basalts. High-Ti basalt has been reported previously at the Apollo 16 site; the other basalt types have not been reported previously. As there are no known cryptomaria or pyroclastic deposits in the highlands near the Apollo 16 site (ruling out a local origin), and scant evidence for basaltic material in the Apollo 16 ancient regolith breccias or Apollo 16 soils collected near North Ray Crater (ruling out a basin ejecta origin), we infer that the basaltic material in the Apollo 16 regolith originated in maria near the Apollo 16 site and was transported laterally to the site by small- to medium-sized post-basin impacts. On the basis of TiO2 concentrations derived from the Clementine UVVIS data, Mare Tranquillitatis (~300 km north) is the most likely source for the high-Ti basaltic material at the Apollo 16 site (craters Ross, Arago, Dionysius, Maskelyne, Moltke, Sosigenes, Schmidt), Mare Nectaris/Sinus Asperitatis (~220 km east) is the most likely source for the low-Ti and VLT basaltic material (craters Theophilus, Madler, Torricelli), and a large regional pyroclastic deposit near Mare Vaporum (600 km northwest) is the most likely source region for pyroclastic material (although no source craters are apparent in the region).
    • Petrology and chemistry of MIL 03346 and its significance in understanding the petrogenesis of nakhlites on Mars

      Day, James M. D.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Floss, Christine; McSween, Harry Y. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Antarctic meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is a nakhlite composed of 79% clinopyroxene, ~1% olivine, and 20% vitrophyric intercumulus material. We have performed a petrological and geochemical study of MIL 03346, demonstrating a petrogenetic history similar to previously discovered nakhlites. Quantitative textural study of MIL 03346 indicates long (>1 x 10^1 yr) residence times for the cumulus augite, whereas the skeletal Fe-Ti oxide, fayalite, and sulfide in the vitrophyric intercumulus matrix suggest rapid cooling, probably as a lava flow. From the relatively high forsterite contents of olivine (up to Fo43) compared with other nakhlites and compositions of augite cores (Wo38-42En35-40Fs22-28) and their hedenbergite rims, we suggest that MIL 03346 is part of the same or a similar Martian cumulate-rich lava flow as other nakhlites. However, MIL 03346 has experienced less equilibration and faster cooling than other nakhlites discovered to date. Calculated trace element concentrations based upon modal abundances of MIL 03346 and its constituent minerals are identical to whole rock trace element abundances. Parental melts for augite have REE patterns that are approximately parallel with whole rock and intercumulus melt using experimentally defined partition coefficients. This parallelism reflects closed-system crystallization for MIL 03346, where the only significant petrogenetic process between formation of augite and eruption and emplacement of the nakhlite flow has been fractional crystallization. A model for the petrogenesis of MIL 03346 and the nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, Lafayette, Yamato-000593, Northwest Africa (NWA) 817, NWA 998) would include: 1) partial melting and ascent of melt generated from a long-term LREE depleted mantle source, 2) crystallization of cumulus augite (olivine, magnetite) in a shallow-level Martian magma chamber, 3) eruption of the crystal-laden nakhlite magma onto the surface of Mars, 4) cooling, crystal settling, overgrowth, and partial equilibration to different extents within the flow, 5) secondary alteration through hydrothermal processes, possibly immediately succeeding or during emplacement of the flow. This model might apply to single - or multiple - flow models for the nakhlites. Ultimately, MIL 03346 and the other nakhlites preserve a record of magmatic processes in volcanic rocks on Mars with analogous petrogenetic histories to pyroxene-rich terrestrial lava flows and to komatiites.
    • Petrology and geochemistry of a silicate clast from the Mount Padbury mesosiderite: Implications for metal-silicate mixing events of mesosiderite

      Tamaki, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Misawa, K.; Ebihara, M.; Takeda, H. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Petrological and bulk geochemical studies were performed on a large silicate clast from the Mount Padbury mesosiderite. The silicate clast is composed mainly of pyroxene and plagioclase with minor amounts of ilmenite, spinel, and other accessory minerals, and it shows subophitic texture. Pyroxenes in the clast are similar to those in type 5 eucrites and could have experienced prolonged thermal metamorphism after rapid crystallization from a near-surface melt. Ilmenite and spinel vary chemically, indicating growth under disequilibrium conditions. The clast seems to have experienced an episode of rapid reheating and cooling, possibly as a result of metal-silicate mixing. Abundances of siderophile elements are obviously higher than in eucrites, although the clast is also extremely depleted in highly siderophile elements. The fractionated pattern can be explained by injection of Fe- FeS melts generated by partial melting of metallic portions during metal-silicate mixing. The silicate clast had a complex petrogenesis that could have included: 1) rapid crystallization from magma in a lava flow or a shallow intrusion; 2) prolonged thermal metamorphism to equilibrate the mineral compositions of pyroxene and plagioclase after primary crystallization; 3) metal-silicate mixing probably caused by the impact of solid metal bodies on the surface of the mesosiderite parent body; and 4) partial melting of metal and sulfide portions (and silicate in some cases) caused by the collisional heating, which produced Fe-FeS melts with highly fractionated siderophile elements that were injected into silicate portions along cracks and fractures.
    • Petrology and geochemistry of the fine-grained, unbrecciated diogenite Northwest Africa 4215

      Barrat, J. A.; Beck, P.; Bohn, M.; Cotten, J.; Gillet, P. H.; Greenwood, R. C.; Franchi, I. A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      We report on the petrology and geochemistry of Northwest Africa (NWA) 4215, an unbrecciated diogenite recovered in the Sahara. This single stone, weighing 46.4 g, displays a well-preserved cumulative texture. It consists of zoned xenomorphic orthopyroxene grains on the order of 500 micrometers in size, along with a few large chromite crystals (5 vol%, up to 3 mm). Accessory olivine and scarce diopside grains occur within the groundmass, usually around the chromite crystals. Minor phases are cristobalite, troilite, and metal. Unlike other diogenites, orthopyroxenes (En76.2Wo1.1Fs22.7 to En68.6Wo5.5Fs25.9), olivines (Fo76 to Fo71), and chromites (Mg# = 14.3 44.0, Cr# = 42.2-86.5) are chemically zoned. The minor element behavior in orthopyroxenes and the intricate chemical profiles obtained in chromites indicate that the zonings do not mirror the evolution of the parental melt. We suggest that they resulted from reaction of the crystals with intercumulus melt. In order to preserve the observed zoning profiles, NWA 4215 clearly cooled significantly faster than other diogenites. Indeed, the cooling rate determined from the diffusion of Cr in olivine abutting chromite is in the order of 10-50 degrees C/a, suggesting that NWA 4215 formed within a small, shallow intrusion.The bulk composition of NWA 4215 has been determined for major and trace elements. This meteorite is weathered and its fractures are filled with calcite, limonite, and gypsum, typical of hot desert alteration. In particular, the FeO, CaO abundances and most of the trace element concentrations (Sr, Ba, Pb, and REE among others) are high and indicate a significant contribution from the secondary minerals. To remove the terrestrial contribution, we have leached with HCl a subsample of the meteorite. The residue, made essentially of orthopyroxene and chromite, has similar major and trace element abundances to diogenites as shown by the shape of its REE pattern or by its high Al/Ga ratio. The connection of NWA 4215 with diogenites is confirmed by its O-isotopic composition (delta-17O = 1.431 +/- 0.102 ppm, delta-18O = 3.203 +/- 0.205 ppm, Delta-17O = -0.248 +/- 0.005 ppm).
    • Petrology of silicate inclusions in the Sombrerete ungrouped iron meteorite: Implications for the origins of IIE-type silicate-bearing irons

      Ruzicka, A.; Hutson, M.; Floss, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      The petrography and mineral and bulk chemistries of silicate inclusions in Sombrerete, an ungrouped iron that is one of the most phosphate-rich meteorites known, was studied using optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques. Inclusions contain variable proportions of alkalic siliceous glass (~69 vol% of inclusions on average), aluminous orthopyroxene (~9%, Wo1-4Fs2535, up to ~3 wt% Al), plagioclase (~8%, mainly An7092), Cl-apatite (~7%), chromite (~4%), yagiite (~1%), phosphaterich segregations (~1%), ilmenite, and merrillite. Ytterbium and Sm anomalies are sometimes present in various phases (positive anomalies for phosphates, negative for glass and orthopyroxene), which possibly reflect phosphate-melt-gas partitioning under transient, reducing conditions at high temperatures. Phosphate-rich segregations and different alkalic glasses (K-rich and Na-rich) formed by two types of liquid immiscibility. Yagiite, a K-Mg silicate previously found in the Colomera (IIE) iron, appears to have formed as a late-stage crystallization product, possibly aided by Na-K liquid unmixing. Trace-element phase compositions reflect fractional crystallization of a single liquid composition that originated by low-degree (~48%) equilibrium partial melting of a chondritic precursor. Compositional differences between inclusions appear to have originated as a result of a filter-press differentiation process, in which liquidus crystals of Cl-apatite and orthopyroxene were less able than silicate melt to flow through the metallic host between inclusions. This process enabled a phosphoran basaltic andesite precursor liquid to differentiate within the metallic host, yielding a dacite composition for some inclusions. Solidification was relatively rapid, but not so fast as to prevent flow and immiscibility phenomena. Sombrerete originated near a cooling surface in the parent body during rapid, probably impact-induced, mixing of metallic and silicate liquids. We suggest that Sombrerete formed when a planetesimal undergoing endogenic differentiation was collisionally disrupted, possibly in a breakup and reassembly event. Simultaneous endogenic heating and impact processes may have widely affected silicate-bearing irons and other solar system matter.
    • Polygonal impact craters in the Argyre region, Mars: Evidence for influence of target structure on the final crater morphology

      Öhman, T.; Aittola, M.; Kostama, V.-P.; Hyvärinen, M.; Raitala, J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Impact craters that in plan view are distinctly polygonal rather than circular or elliptical are common on Mars and other planets (hman et al. 2005). Their actual formation mechanism, however, is somewhat debatable. We studied the polygonal craters of different degradational stages in the region of the Argyre impact basin, Mars. The results show that in the same areas, heavily degraded, moderately degraded, and fresh polygonal craters display statistically similar strike distributions of the straight rim segments. The fact that the strike distributions are not dependent on lighting conditions was verified by using two data sets (Viking and MOC-WA) having different illumination geometries but similar resolutions. In addition, there are no significant differences in the amount of polygonality of craters in different degradational stages. These results clearly imply that large-scale polygonality is not caused by degradation, but originates from the cratering process itself, concurring with the findings regarding lunar craters by Eppler et al. (1983). The straight rims of polygonal craters apparently reflect areal fracture patterns that prevail for a geologically long time.
    • Polyhedral serpentine grains in CM chondrites

      Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dódony, István; Friedrich, Heiner; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      We used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron tomography, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the structure and composition of polyhedral serpentine grains that occur in the matrices and fine-grained rims of the Murchison, Mighei, and Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrites. The structure of these grains is similar to terrestrial polygonal serpentine, but the data show that some have spherical or subspherical, rather than cylindrical morphologies. We therefore propose that the term polyhedral rather than polygonal be used to describe this material. EDS shows that the polyhedral grains are rich in Mg with up to 8 atom% Fe. EELS indicates that 70% of the Fe occurs as Fe3+. Alteration of cronstedtite on the meteorite parent body under relatively oxidizing conditions is one probable pathway by which the polyhedral material formed. The polyhedral grains are the end-member serpentine in a mineralogic alteration sequence for the CM chondrites.
    • Proceedings of the Workshop on the Role of Volatiles and Atmospheres on Martian Impact Craters

      Barlow, Nadine G.; Stewart, Sarah; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
    • Ries and Chicxulub: Impact craters on Earth provide insights for Martian ejecta blankets

      Kenkmann, T.; Schönian, F. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Terrestrial impact structures provide field evidence for cratering processes on planetary bodies that have an atmosphere and volatiles in the target rocks. Here we discuss two examples that may yield implications for Martian craters: 1. Recent field analysis of the Ries crater has revealed the existence of subhorizontal shear planes (detachments) in the periphery of the crater beneath the ejecta blanket at 0.9-1.8 crater radii distance. Their formation and associated radial outward shearing was caused by weak spallation and subsequent dragging during deposition of the ejecta curtain. Both processes are enhanced in rheologically layered targets and in the presence of fluids. Detachment faulting may also occur in the periphery of Martian impacts and could be responsible for the formation of lobe-parallel ridges and furrows in the inner layer of double-layer and multiple-layer ejecta craters. 2. The ejecta blanket of the Chicxulub crater was identified on the southeastern Yucatán Peninsula at distances of 3.0-5.0 crater radii from the impact center. Abundance of glide planes within the ejecta and particle abrasion both rise with crater distance, which implies a ground-hugging, erosive, and cohesive secondary ejecta flow. Systematic measurement of motion indicators revealed that the flow was deviated by a preexisting karst relief. In analogy with Martian fluidized ejecta blankets, it is suggested that the large runout was related to subsurface volatiles and the presence of basal glide planes, and was influenced by eroded bedrock lithologies. It is proposed that ramparts may result from enhanced shear localization and a stacking of ejecta material along internal glide planes at decreasing flow rates when the flow begins to freeze below a certain yield stress.
    • Role of water in the formation of the Late Cretaceous Wetumpka impact structure, inner Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama, USA

      King, David T.; Ormö, Jens; Petruny, Lucille W.; Neathery, Thornton L. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      The effect of shallow marine water (30-100 m deep) in the late excavation and early modification stages of a marine-target crater 5 km in diameter, as exemplified by the Late Cretaceous Wetumpka impact structure in Alabama, USA, is manifest in the early collapse of a weak part of the rim. Excavation flow and connate marine water are interpreted to be factors in this collapse. This partial rim collapse catastrophically emplaced an upper-structure-filling unit of broken and redistributed sedimentary target formations, which presently mantles the deeper fallback breccia deposits within the structure. Furthermore, rim collapse flow facilitated the formation of a structurally modified, extrastructure terrain, which is located outside and adjacent to the collapsed rim segment. This extrastructure terrain appears to be the product of extensive slumping of poorly consolidated target sedimentary formations.
    • Shişr 043 (IIIAB medium octahedrite): The first iron meteorite from the Oman desert

      Al-Kathiri, A.; Hofmann, B. A.; Gnos, E.; Eugster, O.; Welten, K. C.; Krähenbühl, U. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      The iron meteorite Shişr 043 is a single mass of 8267 g found in the south Oman desert 42 km NE of the Shişr village. It is the first iron identified among the >1400 individual meteorites reported from Oman. The meteorite is a slightly elongated mass showing only minor rusting, a partially smooth and partially rough surface with octahedral cleavage, and a partially preserved metallic fusion crust typically 0.75 mm thick. The undeformed Widmanstätten pattern with a mean kamacite bandwidth of 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 97) indicates structural classification as a medium octahedrite. From the bulk composition, Ni = 8.06 wt%, Ga = 18.8 ppm, Ge = 37.25 ppm, and Ir = 3.92 ppm, the meteorite is classified as IIIAB, the most common group of iron meteorites. The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age based on 3He, 21Ne, 38Ar concentrations and 10Be-21Ne, 26Al-21Ne, and 36Cl-36Ar ratios is 290 +/- 20 Ma. This age falls within the range observed for type IIIAB iron meteorites, but does not coincide with the main cluster. The cosmogenic noble gas and radionuclide data indicate that Shişr 043 had a relatively small preatmospheric mass. The low degree of weathering is consistent with a young terrestrial age of <10,000 years based on the saturated 41Ca concentration. Shişr 043 is not paired with any of the other eight known iron meteorites from the Arabian Peninsula.
    • Shock and thermal history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 from transmission electron microscopy

      Barber, David J.; Scott, Edward R. D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Microstructures in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite were studied using optical and electron microscopy, putting emphasis on shock effects, which are widespread. Some orthopyroxene exhibits only (100) slip, but more typical grains suffered extensive slip, microfracturing, and frequently contain (100) clino-inversion lamellae. In fracture zones, shock deformation of orthopyroxene has produced all three effects in profusion, together with intergranular pockets of orthopyroxene glass and intragranular glass lamellae, which were apparently created by shearing on low index planes, usually (100) or {110}. Both types of plane are loci that pseudo-planar fractures tend to follow. Thus, the glass lamellae, which have not been observed in other meteorites, probably formed by frictional heating during the sliding of microscale corrugated surfaces, one over another, leading to local melting. We infer that the orthopyroxene glass and the fracture zones both formed from shear stresses created by strong shock. Ubiquitous undeformed micrometer and submicrometer euhedral chromites in orthopyroxene and plagioclase glasses and carbonate probably crystallized after shock heating and fracture zone formation. Nanocrystals of eskolaite (Cr2O3) coating silica glass grains are probably also a result of shock-induced thermal decomposition of chromite. Iron sulfides (pyrite and pyrrhotite were identified) tended to be associated with plagioclase glass. A carbonate disk showing no evidence for shock deformation had a substructure of elongated, slightly misoriented subcells in the exterior; interior regions had more eqiaxed subcells. Both microstructures probably formed during growth, but the conditions are undetermined. Chemical composition varied on a micron scale, but the rim of the disk was more ferroan; oxide precipitates and voids were widely distributed as in fracture-filling carbonates. If the fracture zones and opx glass are the result of strong shock, as we deduce, it is very unlikely that pores could have filled by carbonate long after the fracture zones formed. We infer that the carbonate, like the phosphate, olivine, pyrrhotite, eskolaite, and many euhedral, submicrometer chromites, crystallized during the final stages of the impact that created the fracture zones and glasses with compositions of plagioclase, silica, and orthopyroxene.
    • Shock re-equilibration of fluid inclusions in crystalline basement rocks from the Ries crater, Germany

      Elwood Madden, Megan E.; Kring, David A.; Bodnar, Robert J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      This study examines the effects of shock metamorphism on fluid inclusions in crystalline basement target rocks from the Ries crater, Germany. The occurrence of two-phase fluid inclusions decreases from shock stage 0 to shock stage 1, while single-phase inclusions increase, likely as a result of re-equilibration. In shock stages 2 and 3, both two-phase and single-phase inclusions decrease with increasing shock stage, indicating that fluid inclusion vesicles are destroyed due to plastic deformation and phase changes in the host minerals. However, quartz clasts entrained in shock stage 4 melts contain both single-phase and two-phase inclusions, demonstrating the rapid quenching of the melt and the heterogeneous nature of impact deformation. Inclusions in naturally shocked polycrystalline samples survive at higher shock pressures than those in single crystal shock experiments. However, fluid inclusions in both experimental and natural samples follow a similar trend in re-equilibration at low to moderate shock pressures leading to destruction of inclusion vesicles in higher shock stages. This suggests that shock processing may lead to the destruction of fluid inclusions in many planetary materials and likely contributed to shock devolatilization of early planetesimals.
    • Shock, post-shock annealing, and post-annealing shock in ureilites

      Rubin, Alan E. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      The thermal and shock histories of ureilites can be divided into four periods: 1) formation, 2) initial shock, 3) post-shock annealing, and 4) post-annealing shock. Period 1 occurred 4.55 Ga ago when ureilites formed by melting chondritic material. Impact events during period 2 caused silicate darkening, undulose to mosaic extinction in olivines, and the formation of diamond, lonsdaleite, and chaoite from indigenous carbonaceous material. Alkali-rich fine-grained silicates may have been introduced by impact injection into ureilites during this period. About 57% of the ureilites were unchanged after period 2. During period 3 events, impact-induced annealing caused previously mosaicized olivine grains to become aggregates of small unstrained crystals. Some ureilites experienced reduction as FeO at the edges of olivine grains reacted with degrees C from the matrix. Annealing may also be responsible for coarsening of graphite in a few ureilites, forming euhedral-appearing, idioblastic crystals. Orthopyroxene in Meteorite Hills (MET) 78008 may have formed from pigeonite by annealing during this period. The Rb-Sr internal isochron age of ~4.0 Ga for MET 78008 probably dates the annealing event. At this late date, impacts are the only viable heat source. About 36% of ureilites experienced period 3 events, but remained unchanged afterwards. During period 4, ~7% of the ureilites were shocked again, as is evident in the polymict breccia, Elephant Moraine (EET) 83309. This rock contains annealed mosaicized olivine aggregates composed of small individual olivine crystals that exhibit undulose extinction.Ureilites may have formed by impact-melting chondritic material on a primitive body with heterogeneous O isotopes. Plagioclase was preferentially lost from the system due to its low impedance to shock compression. Brief melting and rapid burial minimized the escape of planetary-type noble gases from the ureilitic melts. Incomplete separation of metal from silicates during impact melting left ureilites with relatively high concentrations of trace siderophile elements.
    • Shock-induced melting, recrystallization, and exsolution in plagioclase from the Martian lherzolitic shergottite GRV 99027

      Wang, Deqiang; Chen, Ming (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      Plagioclase in the Martian lherzolitic shergottite Grove Mountains (GRV) 99027 was shocked, melted, and recrystallized. The recrystallized plagioclase contains lamellae of pyroxene, olivine, and minor ilmenite (<1 micrometers wide). Both the pyroxene and the olivine inclusions enclosed in plagioclase and grains neighboring the plagioclase were partially melted into plagioclase melt pools. The formation of these lamellar inclusions in plagioclase is attributed to exsolution from recrystallizing melt. Distinct from other Martian meteorites, GRV 99027 contains no maskelynite but does contain recrystallized plagioclase. This shows that the meteorite experienced a slower cooling than maskelynite-bearing meteorites. We suggest that the parent rock of GRV 99027 could have been embedded in hot rocks, which facilitated a more protracted cooling history.
    • Shock-metamorphosed zircon in terrestrial impact craters

      Wittmann, A.; Kenkmann, T.; Schmitt, R. T.; Stöffler, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      To ascertain the progressive stages of shock metamorphism of zircon, samples from three well-studied impact craters were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy in thin section and grain separates. These samples are comprised of well-preserved, rapidly quenched impactites from the Ries crater, Germany, strongly annealed impactites from the Popigai crater, Siberia, and altered, variably quenched impactites from the Chicxulub crater, Mexico. The natural samples were compared with samples of experimentally shock-metamorphosed zircon. Below 20 GPa, zircon exhibits no distinct shock features. Above 20 GPa, optically resolvable planar microstructures occur together with the high-pressure polymorph reidite, which was only retained in the Ries samples. Decomposition of zircon to ZrO2 only occurs in shock stage IV melt fragments that were rapidly quenched. This is not only a result of post-shock temperatures in excess of ~1700 degrees C but could also be shock pressure-induced, which is indicated by possible relics of a high-pressure polymorph of ZrO2. However, ZrO2 was found to revert to zircon with a granular texture during devitrification of impact melts. Other granular textures represent recrystallized amorphous ZrSiO4 and reidite that reverted to zircon. This requires annealing temperatures >1100 degrees C. A systematic study of zircons from a continuous impactite sequence of the Chicxulub impact structure yields implications for the post-shock temperature history of suevite-like rocks until cooling below ~600 degees C.
    • SIMS studies of Allende projectiles fired into Stardust-type aluminum foils at 6 km/sec

      Hoppe, Peter; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Floss, Christine; Leitner, Jan; Marhas, Kuljeet K.; Hörz, Friedrich (The Meteoritical Society, 2006-01-01)
      We have explored the feasibility of degrees C, N, and O isotopic measurements by NanoSIMS and of elemental abundance determinations by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) on residues of Allende projectiles that impacted Stardust-type aluminum foils in the laboratory at 6 km/sec. These investigations are part of a consortium study aimed at providing the foundation for the characterization of matter associated with microcraters that were produced during the encounter of the Stardust space probe with comet 81P/Wild-2. Eleven experimental impact craters were studied by NanoSIMS and eighteen by TOF-SIMS. Crater sizes were between 3 and 190 micrometers. The NanoSIMS measurements have shown that the crater morphology has only a minor effect on spatial resolution and on instrumental mass fractionation. The achievable spatial resolution is always better than 200 nm, and degrees C and O isotopic ratios can be measured with a precision of several percent at a scale of several 100 nm, which is the typical size of presolar grains. This clearly demonstrates that presolar matter, provided it survives the impact into the aluminum foil partly intact, is recognizable even if embedded in material of solar system origin. TOF-SIMS studies are restricted to materials from the crater rim. The element ratios of the major rock-forming elements in the Allende projectiles are well-characterized by the TOF-SIMS measurements, indicating that fractionation of those elements during impact can be expected to be negligible. This permits chemical information on the type of impactor material to be obtained. For any more detailed assignments to specific chondrite groups, however, information on the abundances of the light elements, especially degrees C, is crucial. This information could not be obtained in the present study due to unavoidable contamination during impact experiments.