Meteoritics & Planetary Science is an international monthly journal of the Meteoritical Society—a scholarly organization promoting research and education in planetary science. Topics include the origin and history of the solar system, planets and natural satellites, interplanetary dust and interstellar medium, lunar samples, meteors and meteorites, asteroids, comets, craters, and tektites.

Meteoritics & Planetary Science was first published in 1935 under the title Contributions of the Society for Research on Meteorites. In 1947, the publication became known as Contributions of the Meteoritical Society and continued through 1951. From 1953 to 1995, the publication was known as Meteoritics, and in 1996, the journal's name was changed to Meteoritics & Planetary Science or MAPS. The journal was not published in 1952 and from 1957 to 1964.

This archive provides access to Meteoritics & Planetary Science Volumes 37-44 (2002-2009).

Visit Wiley Online Library for new and retrospective Meteoritics & Planetary Science content (1935-present).

ISSN: 1086-9379


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Recent Submissions

  • Insight from the unexpected

    Bradley, J. P.; Jones, A. P.; Brownlee, D. E. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    The NASA Stardust mission returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2, an active Jupiter-family comet that is believed to have formed at a heliocentric distance beyond the orbit of Neptune. The study of the samples has provided a critical first look at the micrometer and larger solid materials that were at the edge of the solar system at the time that Kuiper Belt comets formed. Analysis of the samples has involved a number of challenges and surprises. These issues and the full implications of the information that the samples provide were intently discussed at the Timber Cove II meeting October 2628, 2008. The meeting was sponsored by the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) and it was held at a ruggedly beautiful and remote location on the Sonoma coast of northern California once protected by a Russian fort. Seventeen of the papers presented at the meeting are presented in this volume.
  • Nebular mixing constrained by the Stardust samples

    Ogliore, R. C.; Westphal, A. J.; Gainsforth, Z.; Butterworth, A. L.; Fakra, S. C.; Marcus, M. A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Using X-ray microprobe analysis of samples from comet Wild 2 returned by the Stardust mission, we determine that the crystalline Fe-bearing silicate fraction in this Jupiter-family comet is greater than 0.5. Assuming this mixture is a composite of crystalline inner solar system material and amorphous cold molecular cloud material, we deduce that more than half of Wild 2 has been processed in the inner solar system. Several models exist that explain the presence of crystalline materials in comets. We explore some of these models in light of our results.
  • Organic matter from comet 81P/Wild 2, IDPs, and carbonaceous meteorites; similarities and differences

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Peltzer, C.; Jacobsen, C.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    During preliminary examination of 81P/Wild 2 particles collected by the NASA Stardust spacecraft, we analyzed seven, sulfur embedded and ultramicrotomed particles extracted from five different tracks. Sections were analyzed using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (SXTM) and carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected. We compared the carbon XANES spectra of these Wild 2 samples with a database of spectra on thirty-four interplanetary dust particles(IDPs) and with several meteorites. Two of the particles analyzed are iron sulfides and there is evidence that an aliphatic compound associated with these particles can survive high temperatures. An iron sulfide from an IDP demonstrates the same phenomenon. Another, mostly carbon free containing particle radiation damaged, something we have not observed in any IDPs we have analyzed or any indigenous organic matter from the carbonaceous meteorites, Tagish Lake, Orgueil, Bells and Murchison. The carbonaceous material associated with this particle showed no mass loss during the initial analysis but chemically changed over a period of two months. The carbon XANES spectra of the other four particles varied more than spectra from IDPs and indigenous organic matter from meteorites. Comparison of the carbon XANES spectra from these particles with 1. the carbon XANES spectra from thirty-four IDPs (<15 micron in size) and 2. the carbon XANES spectra from carbonaceous material from the Tagish Lake, Orgueil, Bells, and Murchison meteorites show that 81P/Wild 2 carbon XANES spectra are more similar to IDP carbon XANES spectra then to the carbon XANES spectra of meteorites.
  • Dynamics of high-temperature materials delivered by jets to the outer solar nebula

    Ciesla, F. J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    The presence of high-temperature materials in the Stardust collection that are isotopically similar to those seen in chondritic meteorites argues for the outward transport of materials from the hot, inner region of the solar nebula to the region where comets formed. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for this transport, with a number of models being developed to show that such outward transport is possible. However, these models have not examined in detail how these grains are transported after they have been delivered to the comet formation region or how they may be distributed in the cometary nuclei that form. Here, the dynamical evolution of crystalline silicates injected onto the surface of the solar nebula as proposed by jet models for radial transport is considered. It is generally found that crystalline grains should be heterogeneously distributed within the population of comets and within individual cometary nuclei. In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of such grains, turbulence must be effective at mixing the crystalline silicates with native, amorphous grains on fine scales. However, this turbulent mixing would serve to dilute the crystalline silicates as it would redistribute them over large radial distances. These results suggest that it is difficult to infer the bulk properties of Wild 2 from the Stardust samples, and that the abundance of crystalline grains in these samples cannot alone be used to rule out or in favor of any of the different radial transport models that have been proposed.
  • A cometary aggregate interplanetary dust particle as an analog for comet Wild 2 grain chemistry preserved in silica-rich Stardust glass

    Rietmeijer, F. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Many of the nanometer-scale grains from comet 81P/Wild 2 did not survive hypervelocity capture. Instead, they melted and interacted with silica melt derived from the aerogel used by the Stardust mission. Their petrological properties were completely modified, but their bulk chemistry was preserved in the chemical signatures of mostly vesicular Si-rich glass with its typical Fe-Ni-S compound inclusions. Chondritic aggregate IDP L2011A9 that experienced atmospheric pre-entry thermal modification was selected as an analog to investigate these Wild 2 chemical signatures. The chemical, petrologic, and mineralogical properties of the individual constituents in this aggregate IDP are presented and used to match the chemical signatures of these Wild 2 grains. Mixing of comet material and pure silica, which is used in a diagram that recognizes this mixing behavior, is used to constrain the probable petrologic and minerals that caused the Wild 2 signatures. The Wild 2 nanometer-scale grain signatures in Si-rich glass allocations from three different deceleration tracks resembled mixtures of ultrafine-grained principal components and dense agglomerate-like material, Mg-rich silicates (<500 nm) and Fe,Ni sulfides (<100 nm), and Si-rich amorphous material. Dust resembling the mixed matrix of common chondritic aggregate IDPs was present in Jupiter-family comet Wild 2.
  • Connection between micrometeorites and Wild 2 particles: From Antarctic snow to cometary ices

    Dobricǎ, E.; Engrand, C.; Duprat, J.; Gounelle, M.; Leroux, H.; Quirico, E.; Rouzaud, J.-N. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    We discuss the relationship between large cosmic dust that represents the main source of extraterrestrial matter presently accreted by the Earth and samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 returned by the Stardust mission in January 2006. Prior examinations of the Stardust samples have shown that Wild 2 cometary dust particles contain a large diversity of components, formed at various heliocentric distances. These analyses suggest large-scale radial mixing mechanism(s) in the early solar nebula and the existence of a continuum between primitive asteroidal and cometary matter. The recent collection of CONCORDIA Antarctic micrometeorites recovered from ultra-clean snow close to Dome degrees C provides the most unbiased collection of large cosmic dust available for analyses in the laboratory. Many similarities can be found between Antarctic micrometeorites and Wild 2 samples, in terms of chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic compositions, and in the structure and composition of their carbonaceous matter. Cosmic dust in the form of CONCORDIA Antarctic micrometeorites and primitive IDPs are preferred samples to study the asteroid-comet continuum.
  • Analytical SuperSTEM for extraterrestrial materials research

    Bradley, J. P.; Dai, Z. R. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Electron-beam studies of extraterrestrial materials with significantly improved spatial resolution, energy resolution, and sensitivity are enabled using a 300 keV SuperSTEM scanning transmission electron microscope(STEM) with a monochromator and two spherical aberration correctors. The improved technical capabilities enable analyses previously not possible. Mineral structures can be directly imaged and analyzed with single-atomic-column resolution, liquids, and implanted gases can be detected, and UV-VIS optical properties can be measured. Detection limits for minor/trace elements in thin (<100 nm thick) specimens are improved such that quantitative measurements of some extend to the sub-500 ppm level. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be carried out with 0.10-0.20 eV energy resolution and atomic-scale spatial resolution such that variations in oxidation state from one atomic column to another can be detected. Petrographic mapping is extended down to the atomic scale using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging. Technical capabilities and examples of the applications of SuperSTEM to extraterrestrial materials are presented, including the UV spectral properties and organic carbon K-edge fine structure of carbonaceous matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), X-ray elemental maps showing the nanometer-scale distribution of carbon within GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), the first detection and quantification of trace Ti in GEMS using EDS, and detection of molecular H2O in vesicles and implanted H2 and He in irradiated mineral and glass grains.
  • In situ analysis of residues resulting from laboratory impacts into aluminum 1100 foil: Implications for Stardust crater analyses

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N. J.; Cole, M. J.; Bland, P. A.; Russell, S. S. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    The encounter between the Stardust spacecraft and particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 gave impacts at a relative velocity of 6.1 km s^(-1) and near perpendicular incidence to the collector surface. Such conditions are well within the performance limits of light gas gun laboratory simulations. For this study, two series of shots were conducted at the University of Kent, firing magnesium silicates (Mg end-member forsterite, enstatite, diopside and lizardite), followed by a suite of increasingly Ferich olivines (through to Fe end-member fayalite) into Stardust flight-spare foils. Preserved residues were analysed using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analyses (SEM/EDX). X-ray count integrals show that mineral compositions remain distinct from one another after impact, although they do show increased scatter. However, there is a small but systematic increase in Mg relative to Si for all residues when compared to projectile compositions. Whilst some changes in Mg:Si may be due to complex analytical geometries in craters, there appears to be some preferential loss of Si. In practice, EDX analyses in craters on Stardust Al 1100 foil inevitably include contributions from Fe- and Si-rich alloy inclusions, leading to further scattering of element ratios. Such inclusions have complicated Mg:Fe data interpretation. Compositional heterogeneity in the synthetic olivine projectiles also introduces data spread. Nevertheless, even with the preceding caveats, we find that the main groups of mafic silicates can be easily and reliably distinguished in EDX analyses performed in rapid surveys of foil craters, enabling access to a valuable additional collection of cometary materials.
  • Kosmochloric Ca-rich pyroxenes and FeO-rich olivines (Kool grains) and associated phases in Stardust tracks and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles: Possible precursors to FeO-rich type II chondrules in ordinary chondrites

    Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Matrajt, G.; Westphal, A. J.; Snead, C. J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Terminal particles and mineral fragments from comet 81P/Wild 2 were studied in 16 aerogel tracks by transmission and secondary electron microscopy. In eight tracks clinopyroxenes with correlated Na2O and Cr2O3 contents as high as 6.0 wt% and 13.0 wt%, respectively, were found. Kosmochloric (Ko) clinopyroxenes were also observed in 4 chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). The Ko clinopyroxenes were often associated with FeO-rich olivine +/- Cr-rich spinel +/- aluminosilicate glass or albitic feldspar, assemblages referred to as Kool grains (Ko = kosmochloric Ca-rich pyroxene, ol = olivine). Fine-grained (submicron) Kool fragments have textures suggestive of crystallization from melts while coarse-grained (>1 micrometer) Kool fragments are often glass-free and may have formed by thermal metamorphism in the nebula. Average major and minor element distributions between clinopyroxenes and coexisting FeO-rich olivines are consistent with these phases forming at or near equilibrium. In glass-bearing fine-grained Kool fragments, high concentrations of Na in the clinopyroxenes are inconsistent with existing experimentally determined partition coefficients at equilibrium. We speculate that the availability of Cr in the melt increased the clinopyroxene Na partition coefficient via a coupled substitution thereby enhancing this phase with the kosmochlor component. The high temperature minerals, fine-grain sizes, bulk compositions and common occurrence in the SD tracks and IDPs support the idea that Kool grains could have been precursors to type II chondrules in ordinary chondrites. These grains, however, have not been observed in these meteorites suggesting that they were destroyed during chondrule formation and recycling or were not present in the nebula at the time and location where meteoritic chondrules formed.
  • A TEM study of four particles extracted from the Stardust track 80

    Stodolna, J.; Jacob, D.; Leroux, H. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Four particles extracted from track 80 at different penetration depths have been studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Regardless of their positions within the track, the samples present a comparable microstructure made of a silica rich glassy matrix embedding a large number of small Fe-Ni-S inclusions and vesicles. This microstructure is typical of strongly thermally modified particles that were heated and melted during the hypervelocity impact into the aerogel. X-ray intensity maps show that the particles were made of Mg-rich silicates (typically 200 nm in diameter) cemented by a fine-grained matrix enriched in iron sulfide. Bulk compositions of the four particles suggest that the captured dust particle was an aggregate of grains with various iron sulfide fraction and that no extending chemical mixing in the bulb occurred during the deceleration. The bulk S/Fe ratios of the four samples are close to CI and far from the chondritic meteorites from the asteroidal belt, suggesting that the studied particles are compatible with chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles or with material coming from a large heliocentric distance for escaping the S depletion.
  • Along-track compositional and textural variation in extensively melted grains returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust mission: Implications for capture-melting process

    Velbel, M. A.; Harvey, R. P. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Five amorphous (extensively melted) grains from Stardust aerogel capture Track 35 were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); two from the bulb, two from near the bulbstylus transition, and one from near the terminal particle. Melted grains consist largely of a texturally and compositionally heterogeneous emulsion of immiscible metal/sulfide beads nanometers to tens of nanometers in diameter in a silica-rich vesicular glass. Most metal/sulfide beads are spherical, but textures of non-spherical beads indicate that some solidified as large drops during stretching and breaking while in translational and rotational motion, and others solidified from lenses of immiscible liquid at the silicate-melt/vesicle (vapor) interface. Melted grains appear to become richer in Fe relative to Mg, and depleted in S relative to Fe and Ni with increasing penetration distance along the aerogel capture track. Fe/S ratios are near unity in grains from the bulb of Track 35, consistent with the dominance of Fe-monosulfide minerals inferred by previous research on Stardust materials. Near stoichiometric Fe/S in melted grains from the bulb suggests that Fe-sulfides in the bulb were dispersed and melted during formation of the bulb but did not lose S. Along-track increases in Fe/S in melted grains from the bulb through the bulb-stylus transition and continuing into the stylus indicate that S initially present as iron monosulfide may have been progressively partially volatilized and lost from the melted grains with greater penetration of the grains deeper into the aerogel during capture-melting of comet dust. Extensively melted grains from the bulbs of aerogel capture tracks may preserve better primary compositional information with less capture-related modification than grains from farther along the same capture tracks.
  • Interpretation of Wild 2 dust fine structure: Comparison of Stardust aluminum foil craters to the three-dimensional shape of experimental impacts by artificial aggregate particles and meteorite powders

    Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Price, M. C.; Graham, G. A.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Cole, M. J.; Foster, N. J.; Teslich, N. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm^(-3) (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type degrees C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse finegrained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.
  • Pyroxenes microstructure in comet 81P/Wild 2 terminal Stardust particles

    Jacob, D.; Stodolna, J.; Leroux, H.; Langenhorst, F.; Houdellier, F. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    We report the examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of four Stardust terminal particles extracted from two neighboring tracks (32 an 69). The particles are made of wellpreserved crystalline grains dominated by low-Ca pyroxene ranging from nearly pure enstatite to pigeonite. Some olivine grains are also found, in chemical equilibrium with the surrounding pyroxenes. Various microstructures are observed, as a function of the composition of the grains. They include (100)-twinned pigeonite, clino/ortho domains in enstatite and exsolution in a Ca-rich grain. The microstructures are mostly consistent with a formation by cooling from high-temperature phases, which could be associated to igneous processes. Some dislocations in glide configuration are also present, probably attesting for small intensity shocks. Possible effects of the rapid heating/cooling stage and thermal shock associated to the collect are discussed. It appears that most of the microstructural features reported here are plausibly pristine.
  • Capture effects in carbonaceous material: A Stardust analogue study

    Fries, M.; Burchell, M.; Kearsley, A.; Steele, A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    It is reasonable to expect that cometary samples returned to Earth by the Stardust space probe have been altered to some degree during capture in aerogel at 6.1 km/s. In order to help interpret the measured structure of these particles with respect to their original cometary nature, a series of coal samples of known structure and chemical composition was fired into aerogel at Stardust capture velocity. This portion of the study analyzed the surfaces of aerogel-embedded particles using Raman spectroscopy. Results show that particle surfaces are largely homogenized during capture regardless of metamorphic grade or chemical composition, apparently to include a devolatilization step during capture processing. This provides a possible mechanism for alteration of some aliphatic compoundrich phases through devolatilization of cometary carbonaceous material followed by re-condensation within the particle. Results also show that the possibility of alteration must be considered for any particular Stardust grain, as examples of both graphitization and amorphization are found in the coal samples. It is evident that Raman G band (~1580 cm^(-1)) parameters provide a means of characterizing Stardust carbonaceous material to include identifying those grains which have been subjected to significant capture alteration.
  • Extent of thermal ablation suffered by model organic microparticles during aerogel capture at hypervelocities

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N. J.; Ormond-Prout, J.; Dupin, D.; Armes, S. P. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    New model organic microparticles are used to assess the thermal ablation that occurs during aerogel capture at speeds from 1 to 6 km s^(-1). Commercial polystyrene particles (20 m diameter) were coated with an ultrathin 20 nm overlayer of an organic conducting polymer, polypyrrole. This overlayer comprises only 0.8% by mass of the projectile but has a very strong Raman signature, hence its survival or destruction is a sensitive measure of the extent of chemical degradation suffered. After aerogel capture, microparticles were located via optical microscopy and their composition was analyzed in situ using Raman microscopy. The ultrathin polypyrrole overlayer survived essentially intact for impacts at ~1 km s^(-1), but significant surface carbonization was found at 2 km s^(-1), and major particle mass loss at greater than or equal to 3 km s^(-1). Particles impacting at ~6.1 km s^(-1) (the speed at which cometary dust was collected in the NASA Stardust mission) were reduced to approximately half their original diameter during aerogel capture (i.e., a mass loss of 84%). Thus significant thermal ablation occurs at speeds above a few km s^(-1). This suggests that during the Stardust mission the thermal history of the terminal dust grains during capture in aerogel may be sufficient to cause significant processing or loss of organic materials. Further, while Raman D and G bands of carbon can be obtained from captured grains, they may well reflect the thermal processing during capture rather than the pre-impact particles thermal history.
  • Time evolution and temperatures of hypervelocity impact-generated tracks in aerogel

    Dominguez, G. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    Aerogel collectors have been used to capture cometary, interplanetary, and interstellar dust grains by NASAs Stardust mission, highlighting their importance as a scientific instrument. Due to the fragile and heterogeneous nature of cometary dust grains, their fragments are found along the walls of tracks that are formed during the capture process. These fragments appear to experience a wide range of thermal alteration and the causes of this variation are not well understood at a theoretical level as physical models of track formation are not well developed. Here, a general model of track formation that allows for the existence of partially and completely vaporized aerogel material in tracks is developed. It is shown that under certain conditions, this general track model reduces to the kinetic snowplow model that has previously been proposed. It is also shown, based on energetic considerations, that track formation is dominated by an expansion that is snowplow-like in the later stages of track formation. The equation of motion for this snowplow-like stage can be solved analytically, thus placing constraints on the amount of heating experienced by cometary dust fragments embedded in track walls. It is found that the heating of these fragments, for a given impact velocity, is expected to be greater for those embedded in larger tracks. Given the expected future use of aerogels for sample return missions, the results presented here imply that the choice of aerogel compositions can have a significant effect on the modification of samples captured and retrieved by these collectors.
  • Hydrodynamic modelling of cometary particles captured in aerogel and the Earths atmosphere

    Coulson, S. G. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    The capture of cometary fragments in aerogel by the Stardust mission is analogous to the process of meteoroid deceleration in the Earths atmosphere. We present a simplified model for the formation of the tracks formed in aerogel by hypervelocity impacts of cometary material. Using a hydrodynamic approach to model this class of problem overcomes some of the errors associated with previous semi-analytical models for track formation (Coulson 2009). The hydrodynamic models developed allow the particle velocity, temperature and pressure to be calculated as a function of track length within aerogel. A qualative description of how this model can be extended to the formation of bulbous cavities using the Chapman-Jouquet theory is provided.
  • Three-dimensional textural and compositional analysis of particle tracks and fragmentation history in aerogel

    Ebel, D. S.; Greenberg, M.; Rivers, M. L.; Newville, M. (The Meteoritical Society, 2009-01-01)
    We report analyses of aerogel tracks using (1 synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (XRCMT), (2) laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), and (3) synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) of particles and their paths resulting from simulated hypervelocity impacts (1-2), and a single ~1 mm aerogel track from the Stardust cometary sample collector (1-3). Large aerogel pieces can be imaged sequentially, resulting in high spatial resolution images spanning many tomographic fields of view (lambda-tomography). We report calculations of energy deposited, and tests on aromatic hydrocarbons showing no alteration in tomography experiments. Imaging at resolutions from ~17 to ~1 micron/pixel edge (XRCMT) and to <100 nm/ pixel edge (LCSM) illustrates track geometry and interaction of particles with aerogel, including rifling, particle fragmentation, and final particle location. We present a 3-D deconvolution method using an estimated point-spread function for aerogel, allowing basic corrections of LCSM data for axial distortion. LCSM allows rapid, comprehensive, non-destructive, high information return analysis of tracks in aerogel keystones, prior to destructive grain extraction. SRXRF with LCSM allows spatial correlation of grain size, chemical, and mineralogical data. If optical methods are precluded in future aerogel capture missions, XRCMT is a viable 3D imaging technique. Combinations of these methods allow for complete, nondestructive, quantitative 3-D analysis of captured materials at high spatial resolution. This data is fundamental to understanding the hypervelocity particle-aerogel interaction histories of Stardust grains.