• Integrated 3-D model from gravity and petrophysical data at the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

      Ugalde, H.; Danuor, S. K.; Milkereit, B. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      The Bosumtwi impact structure of central Ghana was drilled in 2004 as part of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). A vast amount of geoscience data is available from the pre-site surveys and the actual drilling phase. A 3-D gravity model was constructed and calibrated with the available data from the two ICDP boreholes, LB-07A and LB-08A. The 3-D gravity model results agree well with both the sediment thickness and size of the central uplift revealed by previously collected seismic data, and with the petrophysical data from the LB-08A and LB-07A core materials and the two borehole logs. Furthermore, the model exhibits lateral density variations across the structure and refines the results from previous 2.5-D modeling. An important new element of the 3-D model is that the thickness of the intervals comprising polymict lithic impact breccia and suevite, monomict lithic breccia and fractured basement is much smaller than that predicted by numerical modeling.
    • The Lake Bosumtwi meteorite impact structure, Ghana—Where is the magnetic source?

      Ugalde, H.; Morris, W. A.; Pesonen, L. J.; Danuor, S. K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      The Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana) is a young and well-preserved structure where a vast amount of information is available to constrain any geophysical model. Previous analysis of the airborne magnetic data and results of numerical simulation of impact predicted a strongly magnetic impact-melt body underneath the lake. Recent drilling through the structure did not penetrate such an expected impact-melt rock magnetic source. A new 3-D magnetic model for the structure was constructed based on a newly acquired higher-resolution marine magnetic data set, with consideration of the observed gravity data on the lake, previous seismic models, and the magnetic properties and lithology identified in the two International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) deep boreholes. The new model contains highly magnetic bodies located in the northeast sector of the structure, not centered onto the drilling sites. As in previous models, higher magnetization than that measured in outcropping impactites had to be assigned to the unexposed source bodies. Integration of the new model with the borehole petrophysics and published geology indicates that these bodies likely correspond to an extension to the south of the Kumasi batholith, which outcrops to the northeast of the structure. The possibility that these source bodies are related to the seismically identified central uplift or to an unmapped impact-melt sheet predicted by previous models of the structure is not supported. Detailed magnetic scanning of the Kumasi batholith to the north, and the Bansu intrusion to the south, would provide a test for this interpretation.
    • Characterization of the log lithology of cores LB-07A and LB-08A of the Bosumtwi impact structure by using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

      Schell, C.; Schleifer, N.; Elbra, T. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Petrophysical data are commonly used for the discrimination of different lithologies, as the variation in mineralogy, texture, and porosity is accompanied by varying physical properties. A special field of investigation is the analysis of the directional dependence (anisotropy) of the petrophysical properties, which can provide further information on the characteristics of the lithologies, due to the fact that this parameter is different in the various rock-forming and rockchanging processes, e.g., deformation or sedimentation. To characterize the rocks in drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A, which were drilled into the deep crater moat and central uplift of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, samples were taken for the study of petrophysical properties. In the present work the magnetic properties of these samples were determined in the laboratory. The results are discussed in relation to the various lithologies represented by this sample suite. The shape and degree of magnetic anisotropy, in combination with the magnetic susceptibility, proved useful in distinguishing between the different lithologies present in the drill cores (polymict lithic breccia, suevite, shale component, and meta-graywacke). It was possible to correlate layers of high (shale component), ntermediate (graywacke, polymict lithic breccia), and low (suevite) anisotropy degree with the lithostratigraphic sequences determined for cores LB-07A and LB-08A. The shape of the anisotropy showed that foliation is most dominant within the shale component, whereas lineation is more pronounced in the meta-graywacke and polymict lithic breccia. An overall increase of the anisotropy degree was observed from core LB-07A towards core LB-08A. Thus magnetic anisotropy data provide a useful contribution towards an improved petrophysical characterization of the lithostratigraphic sequences in drillcores from the Bosumtwi impact structure.
    • Impactites as a random medium—Using variations in physical properties to assess heterogeneity within the Bosumtwi meteorite impact crater

      L'Heureux, E.; Milkereit, B. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      The recent drilling of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, has provided a unique opportunity to study the petrophysical properties of a young, well-preserved impact crater. The damage induced by impact results in extensive fracturing and mixing of target materials. We discuss here a means of using sonic velocity and density logs from two boreholes through the Bosumtwi crater fill and basement to estimate the degree of heterogeneity and fracturing within the impacted target, in order to understand the discrepancy between the large impedances derived from the log data and the nonreflective zone of impactites observed in seismic sections. Based on an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations in the log data, the Bosumtwi impactites are characterized by vertical scale lengths of 23 m. From the resolution of the seismic data over the crater, horizontal scale lengths are estimated at <12 m. The impactites therefore fall within the quasi‐homogeneous scattering regime, i.e., seismic energy will propagate through the medium with little disruption. Scale lengths as small as these are observed in the fractured basement rocks of impact structures, whereas non‐impact related crystalline environments are characterized by scale lengths an order of magnitude larger. Assuming that the high‐frequency fluctuations observed in the log data are more sensitive to fracture distribution than petrology, this suggests that the small scale lengths observed within impact structures are characteristic of impact‐induced damage, and could be used to estimate the extent of fracturing undergone by the rocks at any depth below an impact structure.
    • Petrophysical and paleomagnetic data of drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

      Elbra, T.; Kontny, A.; Pesonen, L. J.; Schleifer, N.; Schell, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Physical properties from rocks of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, Central Africa, are essential to understand the formation of the relatively young (1.07 Ma) and small (10.5 km) impact crater and to improve its geophysical modeling. Results of our petrophysical studies of deep drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A reveal distinct lithological patterns but no depth dependence. The most conspicuous difference between impactites and target lithologies are the lower bulk densities and significantly higher porosities of the suevite and lithic breccia units compared to meta-graywacke and metapelites of target lithologies. Magnetic susceptibility shows mostly paramagnetic values (200 x 500 10^(-6) SI) throughout the core, with an exception of a few metasediment samples, and correlates positively with natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and Q values. These data indicate that magnetic parameters are related to inhomogeneously distributed ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite. The paleomagnetic data reveals that the characteristic direction of NRM has shallow normal (in a few cases shallow reversed) polarity, which is in agreement with the Lower Jaramillo N-polarity chron direction, and is carried by ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite. However, our study has not revealed the expected high magnetization body required from previous magnetic modeling. Furthermore, the LB-07A and LB08-A drill cores did not show the predicted high content of melt in the rocks, requiring a new interpretation model for magnetic data.
    • The Lake Bosumtwi meteorite impact structure, Ghana—A magnetic image from a third observational level

      Ugalde, H.; Morris, W. A.; Clark, C.; Miles, B.; Milkereit, B. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      The Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana is the youngest and best-preserved medium-sized impact structure on Earth, and because of the vast amount of prior geophysical and geological data gathered in the area, it constitutes a great natural laboratory to try to develop new geophysical interpretation and modeling techniques. During the 2004 International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling campaign at Lake Bosumtwi, we made magnetic field observations at 162 stations around the lake. This study differs from all previous magnetic surveys at Bosumtwi, which only measured the scalar portion of the Earth’s magnetic field, in that we measured the full magnetic vector at each station. Acquisition of the full magnetic vector was made possible by innovative use of a borehole deviation probe, which uses a magnetic sensor for absolute orientation reference. Estimates of the magnetic vector orientation and magnitude at each observation station were derived from a series of measurements collected at 50 cm spacing over a depth range of 25 m. In this study, we report a comparison between the scalar total field intensity derived from this new survey approach with the other two previously acquired marine and airborne magnetic data sets. The scalar total magnetic intensity (TMI) computed from the vector data set compares in close agreement with the other two data sets. Some discrepancies between the data sets can be explained by differences in the distances between the sensor and the magnetic sources for the various surveys. The highlight of this study is that we demonstrate that is possible to acquire at least partial vector data with readily available instrumentation.
    • Physical property measurements: ICDP boreholes LB-07A and LB-08A,Lake Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

      Morris, W. A.; Ugalde, H.; Clark, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Physical rock property measurements provide the primary constraints for any geological models hypothesized from geophysical observations. Previous geophysical models of the Bosumtwi impact structure hypothesized that a highly magnetic and dense impact-melt sheet might be the source of the observed magnetic anomalies. However, magnetic susceptibility and density measurements made on International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) cores LB-07A and LB-08A from the interior of the Bosumtwi meteorite impact structure contain no evidence for that. Both density and magnetic susceptibility logs on both boreholes exhibit low-amplitude contrasts between the uppermost polymict lithic breccia and suevite, the intermediate monomict lithic breccia, and the lowermost bedrock. The depth extent of fracture-related density reduction is much greater at LB-08A than at LB-07A. A total magnetic intensity log from borehole LB-08A supports the suggestion that magnetic anomalies over Lake Bosumtwi are mainly sourced in undetected and/or covered bedrock intrusions, like the ones outcropping at the northeast and to the southwest of the lake.
    • The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

      Boamah, D.; Koeberl, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.
    • Petrography and shock-related remagnetization of pyrrhotite in drill cores from the Bosumtwi Impact Crater Drilling Project, Ghana

      Kontny, A.; Elbra, T.; Just, J.; Pesonen, L. J.; Schleicher, A. M.; Zolk, J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Rock magnetic and magnetic mineralogy data are presented from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A of the Bosumtwi impact structure in order to understand the magnetic behavior of impact and target lithologies and their impact-related remagnetization mechanism. Basic data for the interpretation of the magnetic anomaly patterns and the magnetic borehole measurements as well as for new magnetic modeling are provided. Magnetic susceptibility (150-500 10^)-6) SI) and natural remanent magnetization (10^(-3)-10^(-1) A/m) are generally weak, but locally higher values up to 10.6 x 10^(-3) SI and 43 A/m occur. Sixty-three percent of the investigated rock specimens show Q values above 1 indicating that remanence clearly dominates over induced magnetization, which is a typical feature of impact structures. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite is the main magnetite phase, which occurs besides minor magnetite and a magnetic phase with a Curie temperature between 330 and 350 degrees C, interpreted as anomalous pyrrhotite. Coercive forces are between 20 and 40 mT. Brecciation and fracturing of pyrrhotite is a common feature confirming its pre-impact origin. Grain sizes of pyrrhotite show a large variation but the numerous stress-induced nanostructures observable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are assumed to behave as single-domain grains. We suggest that the drilled rocks lost their pre-shock remanence memory during the shock event and acquired a new, stable remanence during shock-induced grain size reduction. The observed brittle microstructures indicate temperatures not higher than 250 degrees C, which is below the Curie temperature of ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (310 degrees C).
    • Possible reasons of shock melt deficiency in the Bosumtwi drill cores

      Artemieva, N. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Pre-drilling numerical modeling of the Bosumtwi impact event predicted a 200 m thick coherent melt layer, as well as abundant highly shocked target material within the central part of the crater structure. However, these predictions are in disagreement with data from drill core obtained in 2004-2005. Here I provide a brief overview of previous results and discuss possible reasons behind melt deficiency, such as specific impact scenarios (low impact velocity and/or low impact angle), and specific target properties (different composition, high porosity, high content of volatiles). I conclude that the most likely explanation is the dispersion of impactites due to the vaporization of pore water, which was not included in the original numerical model.
    • Clast fabric examination of impact-generated breccias, borehole LB-07A, Bosumtwi, Ghana

      Morris, W. A.; Ugalde, H.; Clark, C.; Miles, B. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      An impact event always creates a cloud of ejecta generated through excavation of the target. Subsequent in-filling of the void by crater-fill deposits provides a record of post-impact processes. Full-core digital photographic scans of core segments from borehole LB-07 in the Bosumtwi impact crater provide a complete record of the in-fill process. The shape, orientation, and size of clasts within the impact breccia were measured using a best-fit ellipsoid approach. Clast size and variance, together with clast orientation data, suggest the impact breccias at Bosumtwi can be divided into a simple two-fold subdivision that loosely agrees with the lithological zonation of a lower monomict breccia overlain by a polymict breccia. The lower unit is characterized by a uniform and finer-grained clast size together with a uniform flat-lying clast orientation. The boundary between the two zones is defined by a sharp increase in clast size. The upper zone shows an average increase in clast size with decreasing depth, but full grain size spectrum together with increased grain size deviation suggest that this is a result of mixing between two populations with different grain size distribution. The main population of clasts shows an incremental decrease of clast size with decreasing depth. The upper zone also contains weakly defined shallowly dipping clast fabrics, which may be suggestive of horizontal transport or deposition onto an inclined surface.
    • Lithological and structural characteristics of the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Interpretation of acoustic televiewer images

      Hunze, S.; Wonik, T. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Bosumtwi is a very well-preserved 1.07 Myr old, complex terrestrial impact crater locatedin south-central Ghana, West Africa. The impact structure has a diameter of about 10.5 km and wasformed in 2.1–2.2 Gyr Precambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Drilling and logging was carried out during the Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project (BCDP) which was supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). One of the aims of this project is to achieve detailed information on the subsurface structure and crater fill of one of the best preserved large young impact structures. We interpreted the wireline logs and televiewer images. The physical properties including shallow resistivity, p-wave velocity, magnetic susceptibility, and borehole diameter of the breccia differ significantly from those of the meta-graywackes and slate/phyllites. Fractures observed in the televiewer images are interpreted to determine their characteristic structural features. The fracture dip angles are steep (50–70 degrees) and the two main dip directions are southeast and southwest. Most fractures observed in the borehole are open. The indicated main stress direction is north-south.
    • Search for a meteoritic component in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Platinum group element contents and osmium isotopic characteristics

      McDonald, I.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Coney, L.; Ferrière, L.; Reimold, W. U.; Koeberl, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      An attempt was made to detect a meteoritic component in both crater-fill (fallback) impact breccias and fallout suevites (outside the crater rim) at the Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana. Thus far, the only clear indication for an extraterrestrial component related to this structure has been the discovery of a meteoritic signature in Ivory Coast tektites, which formed during the Bosumtwi impact event. Earlier work at Bosumtwi indicated unusually high levels of elements that are commonly used for the identification of meteoritic contamination (i.e., siderophile elements, including the platinum group elements [PGE]) in both target rocks and impact breccias from surface exposures around the crater structure, which does not allow unambiguous verification of an extraterrestrial signature. The present work, involving PGE abundance determinations and Os isotope measurements on drill core samples from inside and outside the crater rim, arrives at the same conclusion. Despite the potential of the Os isotope system to detect even small amounts of extraterrestrial contribution, the wide range in PGE concentrations and Os isotope composition observed in the target rocks makes the interpretation of unradiogenic, high-concentration samples as an impact signature ambiguous.
    • In situ seismic measurements in borehole LB-08A in the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Preliminary interpretation

      Schmitt, D. R.; Milkereit, B.; Karp, T.; Scholz, C.; Danuor, S.; Meillieux, D.; Welz, M. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      In order to assist in the interpretation of previous seismic refraction and reflection surveys, a vertical seismic profile was acquired in the Lake Bosumtwi (Ghana) hard-rock core hole LB-08A. No seismic reflections are seen in the up-going wave field obtained, and this observation is consistent with the lack of reflectivity observed in the corresponding 2-D surface seismic profile obtained in earlier studies. Direct down-going P-waves were found both in the cased sediment column from a depth of 73 m to 239 m below the lake surface and in the open-hole hard rock section from a depth of 239 m to 451 m of LB-08A. Analysis of the observed travel times indicates a nearly constant P-wave velocity of 1520 m/s through the soft lacustrine sediments. In the hard-rock, however, the P-wave velocity rapidly increases by nearly 30% from 2600 m/s to 3340 m/s. These values are in good agreement with the gross velocity structure obtained in the earlier joint inversion of seismic reflection and refraction data. These values are low relative to those expected for the metasedimentary protoliths, an observation that has been made at other young impact structures of similar size. The low velocities, together with the fact that they increase so rapidly, is suggestive of a decreasing density of fractures and microcracks with depth. Consequently, the seismic velocity trend may provide a proxy measure of damage, and hence, the decay of the shock pressure from the impact point. Validation of this requires additional detailed studies of the porosity structure in the core.
    • Uppermost impact fallback layer in the Bosumtwi crater (Ghana): Mineralogy, geochemistry, and comparison with Ivory Coast tektites

      Koeberl, C.; Brandstätter, F.; Glass, B. P.; Hecht, L.; Mader, D.; Reimold, W. U. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      In 2004, an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (10.5 km in diameter, 1.07 Myr old), was performed to study the sediments that fill the lake as well as the underlying impactites. In one (LB-05) of 16 cores drilled into the lake sediments, the zone between the impact breccias and the post-impact sediments was penetrated, preserving the final, fine-grained impact fallback layer. This ~30 cm thick layer contains in the top 10 cm "accretionary" lapilli, microtektite-like glass spherules, and shocked quartz grains. Glass particlesmostly of splash form less than 1 mm size--make up the bulk of the grains (~70-78% by number) in the coarser size fraction (>125 micrometers) of the top of the fallback layer. About one-third of all quartz grains in the uppermost part of the layer are shocked, with planar deformation features (PDFs); almost half of these grains are highly shocked, with 3 or more sets of PDFs. K-feldspar grains also occur and some show shock deformation. The abundance of shocked quartz grains and the average shock level as indicated by the number of sets of PDFs, for both quartz and K-feldspar, decrease with depth into the layer. The well-preserved glass spherules and fragments are chemically rather homogeneous within each particle, and also show relatively small variations between the various particles. On average, the composition of the fallback spherules from core LB-5B is very similar to the composition of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites, with the exception of CaO contents, which are about 1.5 to 2 times higher in the fallback spherules. This is a rare case in which the uppermost fallback layer and the transition to the post-impact sediments has been preserved in an impact structure; its presence indicates that the impactite sequence at Bosumtwi is complete and that Bosumtwi is a very well-preserved impact crater.
    • Platinum group elements provide no indication of a meteoritic component in ICDP cores from the Bosumtwi crater, Ghana

      Goderis, S.; Tagle, R.; Schmitt, R. T.; Erzinger, J.; Claeys, Ph. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      In an attempt to identify the type of projectile, 14 samples from the Bosumtwi crater in Ghana were analyzed for platinum group element (PGE) concentrations by nickel sulfide fire assay inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The majority of the samples come from the impactite material recovered by cores LB-07A and LB-08A, which were drilled by the International Continental Scientific Drilling program (ICDP). One sample originates from the fallback material found at the contact between the impactite and the overlying lake sediment in core LB-05B. No clear signature of a meteoritic contamination was identified in the 13 impactite samples. The target rock apparently dominates the PGE contribution in the impactites. These results agree with the PGE concentrations reported for the suevites collected at the crater rim and in other parts of the Bosumtwi ICDP cores. However, based on Cr and Os isotopic signatures, a meteoritic component could be present in the sample of fallback material, supporting the reports of the existence of meteoritic material in the Ivory Coast tektites. Further analyses of the fallback material from the Bosumtwi drill cores should confirm (or not) this first result.
    • Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift

      Ferrière, L.; Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.; Mader, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly different from those of the metasediments, or compared to target rocks from outside the crater rim. So far, no evidence for a meteoritic component has been detected in polymict impact breccias during this study, in agreement with previous work.
    • Geochemistry of impactites and basement lithologies from ICDP borehole LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

      Coney, L.; Reimold, W. U.; Gibson, R. L.; Koeberl, C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      In 2004, a drilling project by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (1.07 Myr old and 10.5 km in diameter), obtained drill core LB-07A, which sampled impactites and underlying metasediments in the crater moat surrounding the small central uplift of the structure. The LB-07A core consists of three sequences: 82.29 m of an upper impactite sequence of alternating polymict lithic and suevitic impact breccias overlying 54.88 m of so-called lower impactite of monomict impact breccia with several suevite intercalations, and 74.53 m of meta-graywacke and altered shale of the basement, also containing a number of suevite intercalations. Major- and trace-element characteristics of all three sequences have been determined to investigate breccia formation and the role of the respective basement lithologies therein. Compositions of polymict impact breccias of the crater fill revealed by core LB-07A are compared with the compositions of the Ivory Coast tektites and the fallout suevites. The impactites of the LB-07A borehole appear well homogenized with respect to the silicate component, and little change in the ranges of many major- and trace-element differences is seen along the length of the borehole (except for Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO contents). Much scatter is observed for a number of elements, and in many cases this increases with depth. It is proposed that any variability in composition is likely the function of clast population differences (i.e., also of relatively small sample sizes). No systematic compositional difference between polymict lithic and suevitic impact breccias is evident. An indication of carbonate enrichment due to hydrothermal alteration is observed in samples from all lithologies. The impactites of the borehole generally show intermediate compositions to previously defined target rocks. The fallout suevites have comparable major element abundances, except for relatively lower MgO contents. The Ivory Coast tektites are generally similar in composition to the LB-07A suevites, but broader ranges in MgO and CaO contents are observed for the LB-07A suevites.
    • Shock-metamorphic petrography and microRaman spectroscopy of quartz in upper impactite interval, ICDP drill core LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana

      Morrow, J. R. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      Standard and universal stage optical microscope and microRaman spectroscopic examination of quartz from the upper impactite interval of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Lake Bosumtwi crater drill core LB-07A demonstrates widespread but heterogeneous evidence of shock metamorphism. In the upper impactite, which comprises interbedded polymict lithic breccia and suevite from a drilling depth of 333.4-415.7 m, quartz occurs as a major component within metasedimentary lithic clasts and as abundant, isolated, single-crystal grains within matrix. The noted quartz shock-metamorphic features include phenomena related to a) deformation, such as abundant planar microstructures, grain mosaicism, and reduced birefringence; b) phase transformations, such as rare diaplectic quartz glass and very rare coesite; degrees C) melting, such as isolated, colorless to dark, glassy and devitrified vesicular melt grains; and d) secondary, post-shock features such as abundant, variable decoration of planar microstructures and patchy grain toasting. Common to abundant planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are dominated by omega{1013 }-equivalent crystallographic planes, although significant percentages of pi{1012} and other higher index orientations also occur; notably, c(0001) planes are rare. Significantly, the quartz PDF orientations match most closely those reported elsewhere from strongly shocked, crystalline-target impactites. Barometry estimates based on quartz alteration in the upper impactite indicate that shock pressures in excess of 20 GPa were widely reached; pressures exceeding 40-45 GPa were more rare. The relatively high abundances of decorated planar microstructures and grain toasting in shocked quartz, together with the nature and distribution of melt within suevite, suggest a water- or volatile-rich target for the Bosumtwi impact event.
    • The ICDP Lake Bosumtwi impact crater scientific drilling project (Ghana): Core LB-08A litho-log, related ejecta, and shock recovery experiments

      Deutsch, A.; Luetke, S.; Heinrich, V. (The Meteoritical Society, 2007-01-01)
      The 1.07 Myr old Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana was drilled within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Project (ICDP). Hole LB-08A, drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift and with a total depth of 451 m, yielded 215.71 m of impact-related rocks. This paper summarizes observations of the lithological logging on core LB-08A. Between a depth of 235.6 and ~260 m, the section consists of a melt-bearing allochthonous, polymict, and mostly clast-supported impact breccia. Down to ~418 m, the section comprises a rather uniform unit of metagraywacke alternating with phyllite to slate (lower greenschist facies); few (par-) autochthonous impact breccia bodies and rare impact dike breccias are present. The lowermost part of the section contains several centimeter- to decimeter-thick melt-bearing breccia dikes in country rocks identical to those occurring above. Omnipresent fracturing was mapped in a qualitative manner. Most prominent shock effects in the uplifted target rocks comprise planar fractures and deformation elements in quartz and polysynthetic twinning in carbonate minerals; the maximum shock pressure as evidenced by quartz is below 26 GPa. The allochthonous breccias occasionally contain a few vol% of melt particles. Suevites occur outside the crater rim, carrying diaplectic crystals, coesite, and ballen quartz as well as true melt glasses and a variety of lithic clasts, among those spectacular staurolite-rich mica-schists. The recorded shock level in the uplifted target rocks is lower than expected and modeled. Shock recovery experiments with analogue carbonaceous graywackes at 34 and 39.5 GPa yielded nearly complete transformation of quartz into diaplectic glass. We therefore exclude a specific shock behavior of the soft, fluid-rich target material (carbonaceous graywackes, shales, slates) in core LB-08A as the prime or only reason for the melt deficit and the generally low shock levels recorded inside the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater.