Meteoritics & Planetary Science is an international monthly journal of the Meteoritical Society—a scholarly organization promoting research and education in planetary science. Topics include the origin and history of the solar system, planets and natural satellites, interplanetary dust and interstellar medium, lunar samples, meteors and meteorites, asteroids, comets, craters, and tektites.

Meteoritics & Planetary Science was first published in 1935 under the title Contributions of the Society for Research on Meteorites. In 1947, the publication became known as Contributions of the Meteoritical Society and continued through 1951. From 1953 to 1995, the publication was known as Meteoritics, and in 1996, the journal's name was changed to Meteoritics & Planetary Science or MAPS. The journal was not published in 1952 and from 1957 to 1964.

This archive provides access to Meteoritics & Planetary Science Volumes 37-44 (2002-2009).

Visit Wiley Online Library for new and retrospective Meteoritics & Planetary Science content (1935-present).

ISSN: 1086-9379


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Recent Submissions

  • From the Editors

    Riller, U.; Reimold, W. U. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
  • Structural analysis of the collar of the Vredefort Dome, South Africa—Significance for impact-related deformation and central uplift formation

    Wieland, F.; Gibson, R. L.; Reimold, W. U. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Landsat TM, aerial photograph image analysis, and field mapping of Witwatersrand supergroup meta-sedimentary strata in the collar of the Vredefort Dome reveals a highly heterogeneous internal structure involving folds, faults, fractures, and melt breccias that are interpreted as the product of shock deformation and central uplift formation during the 2.02 Ga Vredefort impact event. Broadly radially oriented symmetric and asymmetric folds with wavelengths ranging from tens of meters to kilometers and conjugate radial to oblique faults with strike-slip displacements of, typically, tens to hundreds of meters accommodated tangential shortening of the collar of the dome that decreased from ~17% at a radius from the dome center of 21 km to <5% at a radius of 29 km. Ubiquitous shear fractures containing pseudotachylitic breccia, particularly in the metapelitic units, display local slip senses consistent with either tangential shortening or tangential extension; however, it is uncertain whether they formed at the same time as the larger faults or earlier, during the shock pulse. In addition to shatter cones, quartzite units show two fracture types--a cm-spaced rhomboidal to orthogonal type that may be the product of shock-induced deformation and later joints accomplishing tangential and radial extension. The occurrence of pseudotachylitic breccia within some of these later joints, and the presence of radial and tangential dikes of impact melt rock, confirm the impact timing of these features and are suggestive of late-stage collapse of the central uplift.
  • The Ries Crater Museum in Nördlingen, Bavaria, Germany

    Pösges, G. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
  • Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of impactites and target rocks, and search for a meteoritic component

    Dai, X.; Boamah, D.; Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.; Irvine, G.; McDonald, I. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Major and trace element data, including platinum group element abundances, of representative impactites and target rocks from the crater rim and environs of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, have been investigated for the possible presence of a meteoritic component in impact-related rocks. A comparison of chemical data for Bosumtwi target rocks and impactites with those for Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites supports the interpretation that the Bosumtwi structure and Ivory Coast tektites formed during the same impact event. High siderophile element contents (compared to average upper crustal abundances) were determined for target rocks as well as for impactites. Chondrite-normalized (and iron meteorite-normalized) abundances for target rocks and impactites are similar. They do not, however, allow the unambiguous detection of the presence, or identification of the type, of a meteoritic component in the impactites. The indigenous siderophile element contents are high and possibly related to regional gold mineralization, although mineralized samples from the general region show somewhat different platinum-group element abundance patterns compared to the rocks at Bosumtwi. The present data underline the necessity of extensive target rock analyses at Bosumtwi, and at impact structures in general, before making any conclusions regarding the presence of a meteoritic component in impactites.
  • Target rocks, impact glasses, and melt rocks from the Lonar impact crater, India: Petrography and geochemistry

    Osae, S.; Misra, S.; Koeberl, C.; Sengupta, D.; Ghosh, S. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    The Lonar crater, India, is the only well-preserved simple crater on Earth in continental flood basalts; it is excavated in the Deccan trap basalts of Cretaceous-Tertiary age. A representative set of target basalts, including the basalt flows excavated by the crater, and a variety of impact breccias and impact glasses, were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions. Impact glasses and breccias were found inside and outside the crater rim in a variety of morphological forms and shapes. Comparable geochemical patterns of immobile elements (e.g., REEs) for glass, melt rock and basalt indicates minimal fractionation between the target rocks and the impactites. We found only little indication of post-impact hydrothermal alteration in terms of volatile trace element changes. No clear indication of an extraterrestrial component was found in any of our breccias and impact glasses, indicating either a low level of contamination, or a non-chondritic or otherwise iridium-poor impactor.
  • Geochemical and petrographic characteristics of impactites and Cretaceous target rocks from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico: Implications for target composition

    Tuchscherer, M. G.; Reimold, W. U.; Koeberl, C.; Gibson, R. L. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    We present major and trace element data as well as petrographic observations for impactites (suevitic groundmass, bulk suevite, and melt rock particles) and target lithologies, including Cretaceous anhydrite, dolomite, argillaceous limestone, and oil shale, from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, Chixculub impact structure. The suevitic groundmass and bulk suevite have similar compositions, largely representing mixtures of carbonate and silicate components. The latter are dominated by melt rock particles. Trace element data indicate that dolomitic rocks represented a significant target component that became incorporated into the suevites; in contrast, major elements indicate a strong calcitic component in the impactites. The siliceous end-member requires a mafic component in order to explain the low SiO2 content. Multicomponent mixing of various target rocks, the high alteration state, and dilution by carbonate complicate the determination of primary melt particle compositions. However, two overlapping compositional groups can be discerned--a high-Ba, low-Ta group and a high-Fe, high-Zn, and high-Hf group. Cretaceous dolomitic rocks, argillaceous limestone, and shale are typically enriched in U, As, Br, and Sb, whereas anhydrite contains high Sr contents. The oil shale samples have abundances that are similar to the North American Shale Composite (NASC), but with a comparatively high U content. Clastic sedimentary rocks are characterized by relatively high Th, Hf, Zr, As, and Sb abundances. Petrographic observations indicate that the Cretaceous rocks in the Yaxcopoil-1 drill core likely register a multistage deformation history that spans the period from pre- to post-impact. Contrary to previous studies that claimed evidence for the presence of impact melt breccia injection veins, we have found no evidence in our samples from a depth of 1347-1348 m for the presence of melt breccia. We favor that clastic veinlets occur in a sheared and altered zone that underwent intense diagenetic overprint prior to the impact event.
  • 40Ar/39Ar dating and cosmic-ray exposure time of desert meteorites: Dhofar 300 and Dhofar 007 eucrites and anomalous achondrite NWA 011

    Korochantseva, E. V.; Trieloff, M.; Buikin, A. I.; Hopp, J.; Meyer, H.-P. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    We performed high-resolution 40Ar-39Ar dating of mineral separates and whole-rock samples from the desert meteorites Dhofar 300, Dhofar 007, and Northwest Africa (NWA) 011. The chronological information of all samples is dominated by plagioclase of varying grain size. The last total reset age of the eucrites Dhofar 300 and Dhofar 007 is 3.9 +/- 0.1 Ga, coeval with the intense cratering period on the Moon. Some large plagioclase grains of Dhofar 007 possibly inherited Ar from a 4.5 Ga event characteristic for other cumulate eucrites. Due to disturbances of the age spectrum of NWA 011, only an estimate of 3.2-3.9 Ga can be given for its last total reset age. Secondary events causing partial 40Ar loss less than or equal to 3.4 Ga ago are indicated by all age spectra. Furthermore, Ar extractions from distinct low temperature phases define apparent isochrons for all samples. These isochron ages are chronologically irrelevant and most probably caused by desert alterations, in which radiogenic 40Ar and K from the meteorite and occasionally K induced by weathering are mixed, accompanied by incorporation of atmospheric Ar. Additional uptake of atmospheric Ar by the alteration phase(s) was observed during mineral separation (i.e., crushing and cleaning in ultrasonic baths). Consistent cosmic-ray exposure ages were obtained from plagioclase and pyroxene exposure age spectra of Dhofar 300 (25 +/- 1 Ma) and Dhofar 007 (13 +/- 1 Ma) using the minerals specific target element chemistry and corresponding 38Ar production rates.
  • Aorounga and Gweni Fada impact structures, Chad: Remote sensing, petrography, and geochemistry of target rocks

    Reimold, C. Koeberl W. U.; Cooper, G.; Cowan, D.; Vincent, P. M. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data was used to investigate the Aorounga and Gweni Fada impact structures in Chad as part of a new remote sensing study. We believe the results of various data treatments provide extensive new perspective on the macro-structural and topographic divisions for these two impact structures. Our remote sensing studies indicate revised diameters of Aorounga and Gweni Fada of 16 and 22 km, respectively. We selected samples from these two structures for their petrographic, geochemical, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics. In samples from both structures, evidence for shock metamorphism was found in the form of single or multiple sets of planar deformation features in quartz, which confirms the impact origin for both the Aorounga and Gweni Fada structures. The crystallographic orientations of PDFs indicate maximum shock levels of 20-30 GPa for samples from the central parts of both structures. The PDF orientations are characteristic for the orientations observed elsewhere in shocked sandstones, with the higher angles in the orientation histograms being fairly abundant. Geochemically, the rocks are typical uppercrustal sandstones.
  • Shock melts in QUE 94411, Hammadah al Hamra 237, and Bencubbin: Remains of the missing matrix?

    Meibom, A.; Righter, K.; Chabot, N.; Dehn, G.; Antignano, A.; McCoy, T. J.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.; Petaev, M. I.; Keil, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    We have studied the CB carbonaceous chondrites Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94411, Hammadah al Hamra (HH) 237, and Bencubbin with an emphasis on the petrographical and mineralogical effects of the shock processing that these meteorite assemblages have undergone. Ironnickel metal and chondrule silicates are the main components in these meteorites. These hightemperature components are held together by shock melts consisting of droplets of dendritically intergrown Fe,Ni-metal/sulfide embedded in silicate glass, which is substantially more FeO-rich (30 40 wt%) than the chondrule silicates (FeO <5 wt%). Fine-grained matrix material, which is a major component in most other chondrite classes, is extremely scarce in QUE 94411 and HH 237, and has not been observed in Bencubbin. This material occurs as rare, hydrated matrix lumps with major and minor element abundances roughly similar to the ferrous silicate shock melts (and CI). We infer that hydrated, fine-grained material, compositionally similar to these matrix lumps, was originally present between the Fe,Ni-metal grains and chondrules, but was preferentially shock melted. Other shockrelated features in QUE 94411, HH 237, and Bencubbin include an alignment and occasionally strong plastic deformation of metal and chondrule fragments. The existence of chemically zoned and metastable Fe,Ni-metal condensates in direct contact with shock melts indicates that the shock did not substantially increase the average temperature of the rock. Because porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrules are absent in QUE 94411, HH 237, and Bencubbin, it is difficult to determine the precise shock stage of these meteorites, but the shock was probably relatively light (S2-S3), consistent with a bulk temperature increase of the assemblages of less than ~300 degrees C. The apparently similar shock processing of Bencubbin, Weatherford, Gujba (CBa) and QUE 94411/HH 237 (CBb) supports the idea of a common asteroidal parent body for these meteorites.
  • Ejection of Martian meteorites

    Fritz, J.; Artemieva, N.; Greshake, A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    We investigated the transfer of meteorites from Mars to Earth with a combined mineralogical and numerical approach. We used quantitative shock pressure barometry and thermodynamic calculations of post-shock temperatures to constrain the pressure/temperature conditions for the ejection of Martian meteorites. The results show that shock pressures allowing the ejection of Martian meteorites range from 5 to 55 GPa, with corresponding post-shock temperature elevations of 10 to about 1000 degrees C. With respect to shock pressures and post-shock temperatures, an ejection of potentially viable organisms in Martian surface rocks seems possible. A calculation of the cooling time in space for the most highly shocked Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 77005 was performed and yielded a best-fit for a post-shock temperature of 1000 degrees C and a meteoroid size of 0.4 to 0.6 m. The final burial depths of the sub-volcanic to volcanic Martian rocks as indicated by textures and mineral compositions of meteorites are in good agreement with the postulated size of the potential source region for Martian meteorites during the impact of a small projectile (200 m), as defined by numerical modeling (Artemieva and Ivanov 2004). A comparison of shock pressures and ejection and terrestrial ages indicates that, on average, highly shocked fragments reach Earth-crossing orbits faster than weakly shocked fragments. If climatic changes on Mars have a significant influence on the atmospheric pressure, they could account for the increase of recorded ejection events of Martian meteorites in the last 5 Ma.
  • Fine-grained dust rims in the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite: Evidence for parent body alteration

    Greshake, A.; Krot, A. N.; Flynn, G. J.; Keil, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    The Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite consists of heavily aqueously altered chondrules, CAIs, and larger mineral fragments in a fine-grained, phyllosilicate-dominated matrix. The vast majority of the coarse-grained components in this meteorite are surrounded by continuous, 1.5 to 200 m wide, fine-grained, accretionary rims, which are well known from meteorites belonging to petrological types 2 and 3 and whose origin and modification is still a matter of debate. Texturally, the fine-grained rims in Tagish Lake are very similar throughout the entire meteorite and independent of the nature of the enclosed object. They typically display sharp boundaries to the core object and more gradational contacts to the meteorite matrix. Compared to the matrix, the rims are much more finegrained and characterized by a significantly lower porosity. The rims consist of an unequilibrated assemblage of phyllosilicates, Fe,Ni sulfides, magnetites, low-Ca pyroxenes, and forsteritic olivines, and are, except for a much lower abundance of carbonates, very similar to the Tagish Lake matrix. Electron microprobe and synchrotron X-ray microprobe analyses show that matrix and rims are also very similar in composition and that the rims differ significantly from matrix and bulk meteorite only by being depleted in Ca. X-ray elemental mapping and mineralogical observations indicate that Ca was lost during aqueous alteration from the enclosed objects and preferentially crystallized as carbonates in the porous matrix. The analyses also show that Ca is strongly fractionated from Al in the rims, whereas there is no fractionation of the Ti/Al-ratios. Our data suggest that the fine-grained rims in Tagish Lake initially formed by accretion in the solar nebula and were subsequently modified by in situ alteration on the parent body. This pervasive alteration removed any potential evidence for preaccretionary alteration but did not change the overall texture of the Tagish Lake meteorite.
  • Shock metamorphism of quartz at the submarine Mjølnir impact crater, Barents Sea

    Sandbakken, P. T.; Langenhorst, F.; Dypvik, H. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Shock metamorphosed quartz grains have been discovered in a drill core from the central peak of the Late Jurassic, marine Mjølnir structure; this finding further corroborates the impact origin of Mjølnir. The intersected strata represent the Upper Jurassic Hekkingen Formation and underlying Jurassic and Upper Triassic formations. The appearance, orientation, and origin of shock features in quartz grains and their stratigraphic distribution within the core units have been studied by optical and transmission electron microscopy. The quartz grains contain planar fractures (PFs), planar deformation features (PDFs), and mechanical Brazil twins. The formation of PFs is the predominant shock effect and is attributed to the large impedance differences between the water-rich pores and constituent minerals in target sediments. This situation may have strengthened tensional/extensional and shear movements during shock compression and decompression. The combination of various shock effects indicates possible shock pressures between 5 and at least 20 GPa for three core units with a total thickness of 86 m (from 74.00 m to 171.09 m core depth). Crater-fill material from the lower part of the core typically shows the least pressures, whereas the uppermost part of the allochthonous crater deposits displays the highest pressures. The orientations of PFs in studied quartz grains seem to become more diverse as the pressure rises from predominantly (0001) PFs to a combination of (0001), {0011}, and {0022} orientations. However, the lack of experimental data on porous sedimentary rocks does not allow us to further constrain the shock conditions on the basis of PF orientations.
  • Shock melting of ordinary chondrite powders and implications for asteroidal regoliths

    Hörz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; See, T. H.; Le, L. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    A series of 59 impacts in the laboratory reduced a coherent 460 g piece of the L6 ordinary chondrite ALH 85017 to a coarse-grained regolith. We then subjected the 125-250 micrometer fines from this sample to reverberation shock stresses of 14.567 GPa in order to delineate the melting behavior of porous, unconsolidated, chondritic asteroid surfaces during meteorite impact. The initial pore space (40-50%) was completely closed at 14.5 GPa and a dense aggregate of interlocking grains resulted. Grain-boundary melting commenced at <27 GPa and ~50% of the total charge was molten at 67 GPa; this stress corresponds to typical asteroid impacts at ~5 km/sec. Melting of the entire sample most likely mandates >80 GPa, which is associated with impact velocities >8 km/sec. The Fe-Ni and troilite clasts of the original meteorite melted with particular ease, forming immiscible melts that are finely disseminated throughout the silicate glass. These metal droplets are highly variable in size, extending to <100 nm and most likely to superparamagnetic domains; such opaques are also observed in the natural melt veins of ordinary chondrites. It follows that melting and dissemination of pre-existing, Fe-rich phases may substantially affect the optical properties of asteroidal surfaces. It seems unnecessary to invoke reduction of Fe2+ (or Fe3+) by sputtering or impact-processes--in analogy to the lunar surface--to produce space weathering effects on S-type asteroids. We note that HED meteorites contain ample FeO (comparable to that in lunar basalts) for reduction processes to take place, yet their probable parent object(s), Vesta and its collisional fragments, display substantially unweathered surfaces. Howardites, eucrites, and diogenites (HEDs), however, contain little native metal (typically <0.5%), in contrast to ordinary chondrites (commonly 10-15%) and their S-type parent objects. These considerations suggest that the modal content of native metal and sulfides is more important for space weathering on asteroids than total FeO.
  • Weathering features in shocked quartz from the Ries impact crater, Germany

    Leroux, H. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Shocked quartz from the ejecta of the Ries impact structure has been investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Quartz grains display numerous planar fractures (PFs) and planar deformation features (PDFs). Both are partly or fully replaced by a mineral of the kaolinite group (likely halloysite). Its formation involves fluid circulation into the dense fracture networks, dissolution and removal of the amorphous phase initially present in PDFs, and finally, precipitation and crystallization of the kaolinite group mineral from solutions resulting from the chemical alteration of adjacent minerals (feldspars and biotite). Kaolinite group minerals are typical of hydrothermal alteration at low temperature, in humid climate, and under moderately acid conditions and, thus, this alteration may not be directly related to the impact event itself. However, the weathering features were strongly enhanced by the shock-generated microstructure, in particular by fractures that provided pathways for fluid circulation.
  • Experimental reproduction of tectonic deformation lamellae in quartz and comparison to shock-induced planar deformation features

    Vernooij, M. G. C.; Langenhorst, F. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Planar features can develop in quartz during comparatively slow tectonic deformation and during very fast dynamic shock metamorphism. Despite their very different structural nature, tectonically induced deformation lamellae have sometimes been mistaken as shock-induced planar deformation features (PDFs). To understand the formation of deformation lamellae and to address the substantial differences between them and PDFs, we have conducted deformation experiments on single crystals of quartz in a Griggs-type apparatus, at a temperature of 800 degrees C, a confining pressure of 12 kbar, and a strain rate of 0.7- 1.1 x 10^(-6). The deformed samples were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compared to natural PDFs from the Ries Crater, Germany. TEM revealed that tectonic deformation lamellae are associated with numerous sub-parallel curved subgrain walls, across which the orientation of the crystal changes slightly. The formation of deformation lamellae is due to glide- and climb-controlled deformation in the exponential creep regime. In contrast, the PDFs in shocked quartz from the Ries are perfectly planar, crystallographically controlled features that originally represented amorphous lamellae. Due to postshock annealing and hydrothermal activity they are recrystallized and decorated with fluid inclusions.
  • Experimental shock synthesis of diamonds in a graphite gneiss

    Kenkmann, T.; Hornemann, U.; Stöffler, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    The occurrence of diamonds in terrestrial impact craters and meteorites is related to dynamic shock loading during hypervelocity impacts. To understand the mechanism of impact diamond formation in natural rocks, shock-recovery experiments with graphite gneiss were carried out at shock pressures between 35 and 79 GPa. This is the first report on the successful shock synthesis of microdiamonds in a natural rock. Micrometer-size diamonds and a wide range of intermediate, presently unclassified, amorphous, and disordered carbon phases were observed within vesiculated biotite melts in the vicinity of relic graphite grains using microRaman spectrometry. We explain these findings by jetting mechanisms of carbon and graphite clusters, originating at the edges of graphite grains, into the very hot and volatile rich biotitic melt veins during shock loading. This environment enabled the thermally activated crystallization of diamonds during shock compression in a period of less than 0.5 microseconds. Regraphitization of diamonds during pressure release was widespread and caused the formation of the amorphous to disordered carbon phases recorded frequently with microRaman spectroscopy. The surviving diamonds must have cooled down to 2000 K during the compression phase at local thermal sinks and cooler interfaces to avoid regraphitization.
  • Raman spectroscopy of olivine in dunite experimentally shocked to pressures between 5 and 59 GPa

    Farrell-Turner, S.; Reimold, W. U.; Nieuwoudt, M.; Erasmus, R. M. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    Previous Raman investigations on experimentally shocked single-crystal olivine indicated that the olivine Raman bands seemingly shift to a higher wave number with increasing shock pressure. If this effect could be confirmed, Raman analysis of natural shock-metamorphosed minerals could potentially provide an important shock barometric tool. We carried out a Raman spectroscopic study on olivine in a series of natural dunite samples experimentally shocked to pressures between 5 and 59 GPa. In addition, we analyzed olivine grains in a sample of the Cold Bokkeveld C1 meteorite. We studied samples of several dunites with olivine of 90.64-92.00 mole% Fo to determine Raman effects in the region from 200 to 900 cm(-1). Several olivine grains per sample/shock pressure stage were analyzed. Raman analysis, however, showed little or no shift with increasing shock pressure. The shifts to higher or lower frequencies observed were not specific for a given pressure stage, with some grains within a sample showing more shift than others. This finding is unrelated to the crystallographic orientation of analyzed grains and cannot be related systematically to the different degrees of optically determined shock metamorphism of the analyzed grains. We identified an increase in full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the 824 cm^(-1) band with increased shock pressure in the shocked heim samples above 45 GPa and, to a lesser extent, for the 856 cm^(-1) band. Evaluation of band broadening of olivine in the Cold Bokkeveld meteorite showed FWHM values that were much greater (920 cm^(-1)) than those of olivine in the shocked dunite samples (712 cm^(-1)). We concluded that these differences in FWHM are due to differences in chemical composition between the meteoritic and the experimentally shocked olivine. Therefore, using Raman spectroscopy to detect small shifts in wave numbers to higher frequencies with increased shock pressure does not yield consistent effects for polycrystalline dunite. An extra band at 650 cm^(-1) was identified in the Raman spectra of the unshocked Mooihoek dunite and the heim dunite samples shocked to 5, 29.3, and 59 GPa, as well as another at 696 cm^(-1) in all the spectra of the 59 GPa heim sample. The cause of these extra bands is not known. Comparison of these results with Raman spectra of olivine from the Cold Bokkeveld C1 meteorite did not allow us to determine shock pressures for the meteoritic olivine.
  • An appreciation of Dieter Stöffler

    Keil, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
  • Shock waves—Phenomenology, experimental, and numerical simulation

    Thoma, K.; Hornemann, U.; Sauer, M.; Schneider, E. (The Meteoritical Society, 2005-01-01)
    The purpose of this paper is to review the results of long-term cooperation between Dieter Stffler and the authors in the field of shock wave deformation of minerals and rocks. First, the principal phenomena of shock wave generation and propagation, predominantly in solid media, are presented, and then analytical and numerical mathematical treatment of shock wave processes on the basis of mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws will be described and discussed. Experimental methods of shock wave investigations by means of impact and explosive techniques are summarized, including hypervelocity acceleration facilities and high-pressure explosive devices. Shock pressure barometry by means of mineralogical evidence of distinct material phase transitions and characteristic shock structures is also discussed.