• Fluid inclusion evidence for impact-related hydrothermal fluid and hydrocarbon migration in Creataceous sediments of the ICDP-Chicxulub drill core Yax-1

      Lüders, V.; Rickers, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Fluid inclusions studies in quartz and calcite in samples from the ICDP-Chicxulub drill core Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) have revealed compelling evidence for impact-induced hydrothermal alteration. Fluid circulation through the melt breccia and the underlying sedimentary rocks was not homogeneous in time and space. The formation of euhedral quartz crystals in vugs hosted by Cretaceous limestones is related to the migration of hot (>200 degrees C), highly saline, metal-rich, hydrocarbon-bearing brines. Hydrocarbons present in some inclusions in quartz are assumed to derive from cracking of pre-impact organic matter. The center of the crater is assumed to be the source of the hot quartz-forming brines. Fluid inclusions in abundant newly-formed calcite indicate lower cyrstallization temperatures (75100 degrees C). Calcite crystallization is likely related to a later stage of hydrothermal alteration. Calcite precipitated from saline fluids, most probably from formation water. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions and REE distributions in calcites and carbonate host rocks suggest that the calcite-forming fluids have achieved close equilibrium conditions with the Cretaceous limestones. The precipitation of calcite may be related to the convection of local pore fluids, possibly triggered by impact-induced conductive heating of the sediments.
    • Origin and emplacement of the impact formations of Chicxulub, Mexico, as revealed by the ICDP deep drilling at Yaxcopoil-1 and by numerical modeling

      Stöffler, D.; Artemieva, N. A.; Ivanov, B. A.; Hecht, L.; Kenkmann, T. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      We present and interpret results of petrographic, mineralogical, and chemical analyses of the 1511 m deep ICDP Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill core, with special emphasis on the impactite units. Using numerical model calculations of the formation, excavation, and dynamic modification of the Chicxulub crater, constrained by laboratory data, a model of the origin and emplacement of the impact formations of Yax-1 and of the impact structure as a whole is derived. The lower part of Yax-1 is formed by displaced Cretaceous target rocks (610 m thick), while the upper part comprises six suevite-type allochthonous breccia units (100 m thick). From the texture and composition of these lithological units and from numerical model calculations, we were able to link the seven distinct impact-induced units of Yax-1 to the corresponding successive phases of the crater formation and modification, which are as follows: 1) transient cavity formation including displacement and deposition of Cretaceous megablocks; 2) ground surging and mixing of impact melt and lithic clasts at the base of the ejecta curtain and deposition of the lower suevite right after the formation of the transient cavity; 3) deposition of a thin veneer of melt on top of the lower suevite and lateral transport and brecciation of this melt toward the end of the collapse of the transient cavity (brecciated impact melt rock); 4) collapse of the ejecta plume and deposition of fall-back material from the lower part of the ejecta plume to form the middle suevite near the end of the dynamic crater modification; 5) continued collapse of the ejecta plume and deposition of the upper suevite; 6) late phase of the collapse and deposition of the lower sorted suevite after interaction with the inward flowing atmosphere; 7) final phase of fall-back from the highest part of the ejecta plume and settling of melt and solid particles through the reestablished atmosphere to form the upper sorted suevite; and 8) return of the ocean into the crater after some time and minor reworking of the uppermost suevite under aquatic conditions. Our results are compatible with: a) 180 km and 100 km for the diameters of the final crater and the transient cavity of Chicxulub, respectively, as previously proposed by several authors, and b) the interpretation of Chicxulub as a peak-ring impact basin that is at the transition to a multi-ring basin.
    • Evidence for ocean water invasion into the Chicxulub crater at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

      Goto, K.; Tada, R.; Tajika, E.; Bralower, T. J.; Hasegawa, T.; Matsui, T. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The possibility of ocean water invasion into the Chicxulub crater following the impact at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary was investigated based on examination of an impactite between approximately 794.63 and 894.94 m in the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) core. The presence of cross lamination in the uppermost part of the impactite suggests the influence of an ocean current at least during the sedimentation of this interval. Abundant occurrence of nannofossils of late Campanian to early Maastrichtian age in the matrices of samples from the upper part of the impactite suggests that the carbonate sediments deposited on the inner rim margin and outside the crater were eroded and transported into the crater most likely by ocean water that invaded the crater after its formation. The maximum grain size of limestone lithics and vesicular melt fragments, and grain and bulk chemical compositions show a cyclic variation in the upper part of the impactite. The upward fining grain size and the absence of erosional contact at the base of each cycle suggest that the sediments were derived from resuspension of units elsewhere in the crater, most likely by high energy currents association with ocean water invasion.
    • Chicxulub: Testing for post-impact hydrothermal input into the Tertiary ocean

      Rowe, A. J.; Wilkinson, J. J.; Coles, B. J.; Morgan, J. V. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Studies of large terrestrial impact craters indicate that post-impact hydrothermal activity is a likely consequence of the crustal deformation and heating induced by such events. In the case of the Chicxulub basin, where marine conditions were re-established soon after the impact, significant fluxing of seawater through the crust and hydrothermal venting into the water column might be anticipated. We have carried out geochemical analyses of Tertiary carbonate sediments within the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill hole to test for evidence of such post-impact hydrothermal circulation. Hydrothermal activity is most likely to be found close to thick layers of melt rock inside the collapsed transient cavity, and it is estimated that Yax-1 is located ~20 km outside this cavity. Consequently, the most likely signature of hydrothermal venting into the water column would be geochemical anomalies attributable to fallout of suspended particulate matter from a submarine hydrothermal plume. Samples of Tertiary biomicrites from depths of 794.01 to 777.02 m have high concentrations of manganese, iron, phosphorous, titanium, and aluminium and low iron/manganese ratios relative to samples from higher in the stratigraphic succession. This geochemical anomaly decreases fairly systematically between 793.13 m and 777.02 m, above which an abrupt change in geochemistry is observed. A mass balance calculation suggests that the anomaly is unlikely to be the result of a decreasing detrital input to the carbonate sediments and the nature of the element enrichments is consistent with expectations for fallout from a distal hydrothermal plume. We conclude that a postimpact hydrothermal system did develop at Chicxulub, which led to the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids into the Tertiary water column. Preliminary biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic dating on Yax-1 core suggest that this hydrothermal activity lasted for at least 300 ka.
    • Secondary alteration of the impactite and mineralization in the basal Tertiary sequence, Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico

      Ames, D. E.; Kjarsgaard, I. M.; Pope, K. O.; Dressler, B. O.; Pilkington, M. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The 65 Ma Chicxulub impact crater formed in the shallow coastal marine shelf of the Yucatán Platform in Mexico. Impacts into water-rich environments provide heat and geological structures that generate and focus sub-seafloor convective hydrothermal systems. Core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) hole, drilled by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), allowed testing for the presence of an impact-induced hydrothermal system by: a) characterizing the secondary alteration of the 100 m-thick impactite sequence; and b) testing for a chemical input into the lower Tertiary sediments that would reflect aquagene hydrothermal plume deposition. Interaction of the Yax-1 impactites with seawater is evident through redeposition of the suevites (unit 1), secondary alteration mineral assemblages, and the subaqueous depositional environment for the lower Tertiary carbonates immediately overlying the impactites. The least-altered silicate melt composition intersected in Yax-1 is that of a calc-alkaline basaltic andesite with 53.4-56 wt% SiO2 (volatile-free). The primary mineralogy consists of fine microlites of diopside, plagioclase (mainly Ab 47), ternary feldspar (Ab 37 to 77), and trace apatite, titanite,and zircon. The overprinting alteration mineral assemblage is characterized by Mg-saponite, Kmontmorillonite, celadonite, K-feldspar, albite, Fe-oxides, and late Ca and Mg carbonates. Mg and K metasomatism resulted from seawater interaction with the suevitic rocks producing smectite-Kfeldspar assemblages in the absence of any mixed layer clay minerals, illite, or chlorite. Rare pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite occur near the base of the impactites. These secondary alteration minerals formed by low temperature (0-150 degrees C) oxidation and fixation of alkalis due to the interaction of glass-rich suevite with down-welling seawater in the outer annular trough intersected at Yax-1. The alteration represents a cold, Mg-K-rich seawater recharge zone, possibly recharging higher temperature hydrothermal activity proposed in the central impact basin. Hydrothermal metal input into the Tertiary ocean is shown by elevated Ni, Ag, Au, Bi, and Te concentrations in marcasite and Cd and Ga in sphalerite in the basal 25 m of the Tertiary carbonates in Yax-1. The lower Tertiary trace element signature reflects hydrothermal metal remobilization from a mafic source rock and is indicative of hydrothermal venting of evolved seawater into the Tertiary ocean from an impactgenerated hydrothermal convective system.
    • Hydrothermal alteration in the core of the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

      Zürcher, L.; Kring, D. A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Petrographic, electron microprobe, and Raman spectrometric analyses of Yaxcopoil-1 core samples from the Chicxulub crater indicate that the impact generated a hydrothermal system. Relative textural and vein crosscutting relations and systematic distribution of alteration products reveal a progression of the hydrothermal event in space and time and provide constraints on the nature of the fluids. The earliest calcite, halite, and gaylussite suggest that the impactite sequence was initially permeated by a low temperature saline brine. Subsequent development of a higher temperature hydrothermal regime is indicated by thermal metamorphic diopside-hedenbergite (Aeg3Fs(18-33)En32 11Wo(47-53)) after primary augite and widespread Na-K for Ca metasomatic alkali exchange in plagioclase. Hydrothermal sphene, apatite, magnetite +/- (bornite), as well as early calcite (combined 3 to 8 vol%) were introduced with metasomatic feldspar. A lower temperature regime characterized by smectite after probable primary glass, secondary chlorite, and other pre-existing mafic minerals, as well as very abundant calcite veins and open-space fillings, extensively overprinted the early hydrothermal stage. The composition of early and late hydrothermal minerals show that the solution was chlorine-rich (Cl/F >10) and that its Fe/Mg ratio and oxidation state increased substantially (4 to 5 logO2 units) as temperature decreased through time. The most altered zone in the impactite sequence occurs 30 m above the impact melt.The lack of mineralogical zoning about the impact melt and convective modeling constraints suggest that this unit was too thin at Yaxcopoil-1 to provide the necessary heat to drive fluids and implies that the hydrothermal system resulted from the combined effects of a pre-existing saline brine and heat that traveled to the Yaxcopoil-1 site from adjacent areas where the melt sheet was thicker. Limonite after iron oxides is more common toward the top of the sequence and suggests that the impactite section was subjected to weathering before deposition of the Tertiary marine cover. In addition, scarce latest anatase stringers, chalcopyrite, and barite in vugs, francolite after apatite, and recrystallized halite are the likely products of limited post- ydrothermal ambient-temperature diagenesis, or ocean and/or meteoric water circulation.
    • Composition of impact melt particles and the effects of post-impact alteration in suevitic rocks at the Yaxcopoil-1 drill core, Chicxulub crater, Mexico

      Hecht, L.; Wittmann, A.; Schmitt, R.-T.; Stöffler, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Petrographical and chemical analysis of melt particles and alteration minerals of the about 100 m-thick suevitic sequence at the Chicxulub Yax-1 drill core was performed. The aim of this study is to determine the composition of the impact melt, the variation between different types of melt particles, and the effects of post-impact hydrothermal alteration. We demonstrate that the compositional variation between melt particles of the suevitic rocks is the result of both incomplete homogenization of the target lithologies during impact and subsequent post-impact hydrothermal alteration. Most melt particles are andesitic in composition. Clinopyroxene-rich melt particles possess lower SiO2 and higher CaO contents. These are interpreted by mixing of melts from the silicate basement with overlying carbonate rocks. Multi-stage post-impact hydrothermal alteration involved significant mass transfer of most major elements and caused further compositional heterogeneity between melt particles. Following backwash of seawater into the crater, palagonitization of glassy melt particles likely caused depletion of SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, and enrichment of K2O and FeOtot during an early alteration stage. Since glass is very susceptible to fluid-rock interaction, the state of primary crystallization of the melt particles had a significant influence on the intensity of the postimpact hydrothermal mass transfer and was more pronounced in glassy melt particles than in wellcrystallized particles. In contrast to other occurrences of Chicxulub impactites, the Yax-1 suevitic rocks show strong potassium metasomatism with hydrothermal K-feldspar formation and whole rock K20 enrichment, especially in the lower unit of the suevitic sequence. A late stage of hydrothermal alteration is characterized by precipitation of silica, analcime, and Na-bearing Mg-rich smectite, among other minerals. This indicates a general evolution from a silica-undersaturated fluid at relatively high potassium activities at an early stage toward a silica-oversaturated fluid at relatively high sodium activities at later stages in the course of fluid rock interaction.
    • More evidence that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T mass extinction

      Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Stinnesbeck, W.; Stüben, D.; Berner, Z.; Kramar, U.; Harting, M. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1), drilled within the Chicxulub crater, was expected to yield the final proof that this impact occurred precisely 65 Myr ago and caused the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Instead, contrary evidence was discovered based on five independent proxies (sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, magnetostratigraphic, stable isotopic, and iridium) that revealed that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T boundary by about 300,000 years and could not have caused the mass extinction. This is demonstrated by the presence of five bioturbated glauconite layers and planktic foraminiferal assemblages of the latest Maastrichtian zone CF1 and is corroborated by magnetostratigraphic chron 29r and characteristic late Maastrichtian stable isotope signals. These results were first presented in Keller et al. (2004). In this study, we present more detailed evidence of the presence of late Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera, sedimentologic, and mineralogic analyses that demonstrate that the Chicxulub impact breccia predates the K/T boundary and that the sediments between the breccia and the K/T boundary were deposited in a normal marine environment during the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous.
    • Is the transition impact to post-impact rock complete? Some remarks based on XRF scanning, electron microprobe, and thin section analyses of the Yaxcopoil-1 core in the Chicxulub crater

      Smit, J.; Van Der Gaast, S.; Lustenhouwer, W. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The transition from impact to post-impact rocks in the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) core is marked by a 2 cm-thick clay layer characterized by dissolution features. The clay overlies a 9 cm-thick hardground, overlying a 66 cm-thick crossbedded unit, consisting of dolomite sandstone alternating with thin micro-conglomerate layers with litho- and bioclasts and the altered remains of impact glass, now smectite. The micro-conglomerates mark erosion surfaces. Microprobe and backscatter SEM analysis of the dolomite rhombs show an early diagenetic, complex-zoned, idiomorphic overgrowth, with Mn-rich zones, possibly formed by hot fluids related to cooling melt sheet in the crater. The pore spaces are filled with several generations of coelestite, barite, K-feldpar, and sparry calcite. XRF core scanning analysis detected high Mn values in the crossbedded sediments but no anomalous enrichment of the siderophile elements Cr, Co, Fe, and Ni in the clay layer. Shocked quartz occurs in the crossbedded unit but is absent in the clay layer. The basal Paleocene marls are strongly dissolved and do not contain a basal Paleocene fauna. The presence of a hardground, the lack of siderophile elements, shocked quartz, or Ni-rich spinels in the clay layer, and the absence of basal Paleocene biozones P0 and Pa all suggest that the top of the ejecta sequence and a significant part of the lower Paleocene is missing. Due to the high energy sedimentation infill, a hiatus at the top of the impactite is not unexpected, but there is nothing in the biostratigraphy, geochemistry, and petrology of the Yax- 1 core that can be used to argue against the synchroneity of the end-Cretaceous mass-extinctions and the Chicxulub crater.
    • Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental reconstruction at Yaxcopil-1 drill hole, Chicxulub crater, Yucatán Peninsula

      Arz, J. A.; Alegret, L.; Arenillas, I. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill hole comprises Cretaceous limestones and calcarenites, the K/P boundary cocktail unit (including impact breccia), and a Danian marly clay layer overlain by calcareous marls. The biostratigraphy, paleobathymetry, and environmental turnover across the K/P interval were inferred after analyzing the planktic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages. The Cretaceous samples only contain a few poorly preserved planktic foraminifera of a middle Campanian to Maastrichtian age, while low-diversity benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest a sufficient nutrient supply to the sea floor and a shallow neritic, occasionally stressed environment. The impact breccia and the redeposited suevite are overlain by a 46 cm-thick dolomitic calcareous sandstone unit that contains scarce, reworked planktic foraminiferal specimens. This unit probably represents the uppermost part of the initial infill of the crater. The uppermost centimeters of this unit are bioturbated, and its top represents a hiatus that spans at least the G. cretacea, Pv. eugubina, and part of the P. pseudobulloides biozones. This unit is overlain by a 3-4 cm-thick marly clay layer that represents a condensed layer. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest a low food supply to the sea floor and environmental instability during the deposition of the marly clay layer. The increase in diversity of the assemblages indicates that the environmental conditions improved and stabilized from the G. compressa biozone toward the A. uncinata (P2) biozone. The Danian planktic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a deeper, probably bathyal environment.
    • Stratigraphic and sedimentological observations from seismic data across the Chicxulub impact basin

      Bell, C.; Morgan, J. V.; Hampson, G. J.; Trudgill, B. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Seismic data across the offshore half of the Chicxulub impact crater reveal a 145 kmdiameter post-impact basin to be a thickening of Tertiary sediment, which thickens by ~0.7 sec from the basin margin to the basin center. The basin existed long after the impact and was gradually infilled to its current flat surface. A suite of seismic horizons within the impact basin have been picked on four reflection lines across the crater. They reveal that the western and northwestern parts of the impact basin were filled first. Subsequently, there was a dramatic change in the depositional environment, indicated by an unconformable surface that can be mapped across the entire basin. A prograding shelf sequence downlaps onto this unconformity in the eastern basin. The seismic stratigraphic relationships suggest a marine regression, with sedimentation becoming gradually more passive as sediments fill the eastern part of the impact basin. The central and northeastern parts of the basin are filled last. The onshore hole Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1), which was drilled on the flanks of the southern basin, has been projected onto the offshore seismic data to the west of the crater center. Using dates obtained from this onshore well and regional data, approximate ages have been placed on the most significant horizons in the offshore seismic data. Our preliminary interpretation is that the western and northwestern basins were almost entirely filled by 40 Ma and that the marine regression observed in the eastern basin is early Miocene in age. Offshore seismic stratigraphic analyses and onshore data within Yax-1 suggest that the early Paleocene is highly attenuated across the impact basin. The Mesozoic section appears to be ~1 km thicker offshore than onshore. We calculate that, given this offshore thickening, the volume of Mesozoic rocks that have been excavated, melted, or vaporized during impact is around 15% larger than expected from calculations that assume the offshore thickness is equal to that onshore. This has significant consequences for any environmental calculations. The current offset between the K-T boundary outside and inside the crater is ~700 m. However, infilling of basins with sediments is usually accompanied by subsidence, and immediately following the impact, the difference would have been smaller. We calculate the original topographic offset on the K-T boundary to have been between 450 and 700 m, which is in agreement with depthdiameter scaling laws for a mixed target.
    • Structure and impact indicators of the Cretaceous sequence of the ICDP drill core Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico

      Kenkmann, T.; Wittmann, W.; Scherler, D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      As part of the ICDP Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) bore hole was drilled 60 km south-southwest of the center of the 180 km-diameter Chicxulub impact structure down to a depth of 1511 m. A sequence of 615 m of deformed Cretaceous carbonates and sulfates was recovered below a 100 m-thick unit of suevitic breccias and 795 m of post-impact Tertiary rocks. The Cretaceous rocks are investigated with respect to deformation features and shock metamorphism to better constrain the deformational overprint and the kinematics of the cratering process. The sequence displays variable degrees of impact-induced brittle damage and post-impact brittle deformation. The degree of tilting and faulting of the Cretaceous sequence was analyzed using 360-core scans and dip-meter log data. In accordance with lithological information, these data suggest that the sedimentary sequence represents a number of structural units that are tilted and moved with respect to each other. Three main units and nine sub-units were discriminated. Brittle deformation is most intense at the top of the sequence and at 13001400 m. Within these zones, suevitic dikes, polymict clastic dikes, and impact melt rock dikes occur and may locally act as decoupling horizons. The degree of brittle deformation depends on lithology; massive dolomites are affected by penetrative faulting, while stratified calcarenites and bituminous limestones display localized faulting. The deformation pattern is consistent with a collapse scenario of the Chicxulub transient crater cavity. It is believed that the Cretaceous sequence was originally located outside the transient crater cavity and eventually moved downward and toward the center to its present position between the peak ring and the crater rim, thereby separating into blocks. Whether or not the stack of deformed Cretaceous blocks was already displaced during the excavation process remains an open question. The analysis of the deformation microstructure indicates that a shock metamorphic overprint is restricted to dike injections with an exception of the so called "paraconglomerate." Abundant organic matter in the Yax-1 core was present before the impact and was mobilized by impact-induced heating and suggests that 12 km^3 of organic material was excavated during the cratering process.
    • Chicxulub central crater structure: Initial results from physical property measurements and combined velocity and gravity modeling

      Vermeesch, P. M.; Morgan, J. V. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      The Chicxulub crater in Mexico is a nearly pristine example of a large impact crater. Its slow burial has left the central impact basin intact, within which there is an apparently uneroded topographic peak ring. Its burial, however, means that we must rely on drill holes and geophysical data to interpret the crater form. Interpretations of crater structures using geophysical data are often guided by numerical modeling and observations at other large terrestrial craters. However, such endeavors are hindered by uncertainties in current numerical models and the lack of any obvious progressive change in structure with increasing crater size. For this reason, proposed structural models across Chicxulub remain divergent, particularly within the central crater region, where the deepest well is only ~1.6 km deep. The shape and precise location of the stratigraphic uplift are disputed. The spatial extent and distribution of the allogenic impact breccias and melt rocks remain unknown, as do the lithological nature of the peak ring and the mechanism for its formation. The objective of our research is to provide a well-constrained 3D structural and lithological model across the central region of the Chicxulub crater that is consistent with combined geophysical data sets and drill core samples. With this in mind, we present initial physical property measurements made on 18 core samples from the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill hole between 400 and 1500 m deep and present a new density model that is in agreement with both the 3D velocity and gravity data. Future collation of petrophysical and geochemical data from Yax-1 core, as well as further seismic surveys and drilling, will allow us to calibrate our geophysical models--assigning a suite of physical properties to each lithology. An accurate 3D model of Chicxulub is critical to our understanding of large craters and to the constraining of the environmental effects of this impact.