• From the Editors: Chondrules and nebular shocks

      Chiang, E. I. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
    • From the Editors: Heavy noble gases in solar system matter

      Marti, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
    • Kurt Fredriksson (1926-2001)

      Olsen, E. J.; Keil, K.; Kurat, G. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
    • Heavily-hydrated lithic clasts in CH chondrites and the related, metal-rich chondrites Queen Alexandra Range 94411 and Hammadah al Hamra 237

      Greshake, A.; Krot, A. N.; Meibom, A.; Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Keil, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Fine-grained, heavily-hydrated lithic clasts in the metal-rich (CB) chondrites Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94411 and Hammadah al Hamra 237 and CH chondrites, such as Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 and Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, are mineralogically similar suggesting genetic relationship between these meteorites. These clasts contain no anhydrous silicates and consist of framboidal and platelet magnetite, prismatic sulfides (pentlandite and pyrrhotite), and Fe-Mn-Mg-bearing Ca-carbonates set in a phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Two types of phyllosilicates were identified: serpentine, with basal spacing of ~0.73 nm, and saponite, with basal spacings of about 1.1-1.2 nm. Chondrules and FeNi-metal grains in CB and CH chondrites are believed to have formed at high temperature (>1300 K) by condensation in a solar nebula region that experienced complete vaporization. The absence of aqueous alteration of chondrules and metal grains in CB and CH chondrites indicates that the clasts experienced hydration in an asteroidal setting prior to incorporation into the CH and CB parent bodies. The hydrated clasts were either incorporated during regolith gardening or accreted together with chondrules and FeNi-metal grains after these high-temperature components had been transported from their hot formation region to a much colder region of the solar nebula.
    • Report: Campo del Cielo iron meteorite: Sample shielding and meteoroid's preatmospheric size

      Liberman, R. G.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Di Tada, M. L.; Fifield, L. K.; Masarik, J.; Reedy, R. C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Long-lived cosmogenic radioisotopes, 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 59Ni, have been measured in five samples from the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The 36Cl activities were significantly above the background. For the concentrations of the other four radioisotopes, only upper limits were obtained that were, however, consistent with the 36Cl result. The measured 36Cl activity allowed an estimate of the meteoroid's preatmospheric size: a radius larger than 300 cm and a mass of at least 840 000 kg. We conclude that this meteorite might be one of the largest meteorites to have been recovered.
    • Application of MELTS to kinetic evaporation models of FeO-bearing silicate melts

      Alexander, C. M. O'D. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Incorporation of the MELTS silicate melt solution model into models of evaporation successfully reproduces the evaporation behavior of alkali-free, FeO-bearing (greater than or equal to 2 mol%) chondritic melts at temperatures between 1700 and 2000 degrees C. In conjunction with the Berman CMAS melt solution model for FeO-poor melts, evaporation of alkali-free melts can now be modeled over a very wide range of conditions. MELTS-based evaporation models can also quite successfully reproduce the evaporation behavior of K when Al/(Na + K) > 1. However, reproduction of Na evaporation experiments is much poorer.
    • The Foelsche structure, Northern Territory, Australia: An impact crater of probable Neoproterozoic age

      Haines, P. W.; Rawlings, D. J. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      The Foelsche structure is situated in the McArthur Basin of northern Australia (16 degrees 40' S, 136 degrees 47' E). It comprises a roughly circular outcrop of flat-lying Neoproterozoic Bukalara Sandstone, overlying and partly rimmed by tangentially striking, discontinuous outcrops of dipping, fractured and brecciated Mesoproterozoic Limmen Sandstone. The outcrop expression coincides with a prominent circular aeromagnetic anomaly, which can be explained in terms of the local disruption and removal or displacement of a regional mafic igneous layer within a circular area at depth. Samples of red, lithic, pebbly sandstone from the stratigraphically lowest exposed levels of the Bukalara Sandstone within the Foelsche structure contain detrital quartz grains displaying mosaicism, planar fractures (PFs) and planar deformation features (PDFs). PFs and PDFs occur in multiple intersecting sets with orientations consistent with a shock metamorphic origin. The abundance and angular nature of the shocked grains indicates a nearby provenance. Surface expression and geophysical data are consistent with a partly buried complex impact crater of ~6 km in diameter with an obscured central uplift ~2 km in diameter. The deformed outcrops of Limmen Sandstone are interpreted as relics of the original crater rim, but the central region of the crater, from which the shocked grains were likely derived, remains buried. From the best available age constraints the Foelsche structure is most likely of Neoproterozoic age.
    • The Frontier Mountain meteorite trap (Antarctica)

      Folco, L.; Capra, A.; Chiappini, M.; Frezzotti, M.; Mellini, M.; Tabacco, I. E. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      The Frontier Mountain blue ice field is an important Antarctic meteorite trap which has yielded 472 meteorite specimens since its discovery in 1984. Remote sensing analyses and field campaigns from 1993 to 1999 have furnished new glaciological data on ice flow, ice thickness, bedrock topography, ice ablation and surface mass transport by wind, along with detailed descriptions of the field situation at the trap. This solid set of data combined with an updated meteorite distribution map and terrestrial ages available from literature allows us to better describe the nature of the concentration mechanism. In particular, we observe that the meteorite trap forms in a blue ice field (1) located upstream of an absolute and a shallow sub-ice barriers; (2) characterized by compressive ice flow with horizontal velocities decreasing from 100 to <10 cm/year on approaching the obstacle; (3) undergoing mean ablation rates of 6.5 cm/year; (4) nourished by a limited snow accumulation zone extending ~20 km upstream of the blue ice area. We also draw the following conclusions: (1) the origin of the meteorite trap can be explained according to the present‐day glaciological situation; (2) the meteorite concentration develops according to the general principles of the “ice flow model”; (3) the accumulation model can be described as “stagnant ice or slow‐moving ice against an absolute and submerged barriers”, according to the descriptive schemes present in literature; (4) the Frontier Mountain ice field is an effective trap for meteorites weighing more than ~200 g; for smaller masses, the combination of wind and glacial drift may remove meteorites in less than a few tens of thousands of years; (5) although the activation age of the Frontier Mountain trap is not yet constrained, we infer that one of the most important findsites may be as old as 50 ka, predating the last glacial maximum.
    • Fine-grained rims in the Allan Hills 81002 and Lewis Cliff 90500 CM2 meteorites: Their origin and modification

      Hua, X.; Wang, J.; Buseck, P. R. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Antarctic CM meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) 81002 and Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500 contain abundant fine-grained rims (FGRs) that surround a variety of coarse-grained objects. FGRs from both meteorites have similar compositions and petrographic features, independent of their enclosed objects. The FGRs are chemically homogeneous at the 10 micrometer scale for major and minor elements and at the 25 micrometer scale for trace elements. They display accretionary features and contain large amounts of volatiles, presumably water. They are depleted in Ca, Mn, and S but enriched in P. All FGRs show a slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern, with enrichments of Gd and Yb and depletion of Er. Gd is twice as abundant as Er. Our results indicate that those FGRs are not genetically related to their enclosed cores. They were sampled from a reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust, prior to accretion to their parent body. The rim materials subsequently experienced aqueous alteration under identical conditions. Based on their mineral, textural, and especially chemical similarities, we conclude that ALH 81002 and LEW 90500 likely have a similar or identical source.
    • Active capture and anomalous adsorption: New mechanisms for the incorporation of heavy noble gases

      Hohenberg, C. M.; Thonnard, N.; Meshik, A. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Active capture is a new process for the incorporation of large quantities of heavy noble gases into growing surfaces. Adsorption in the conventional sense involves surface bonding by polarization (Van der Waals forces). What is referred to as "anomalous adsorption" of heavy noble gases involves chemical bonds and can occur when other (more chemically active) species are not available to preempt sites with unfilled bonds. Anomalous adsorption has been observed under conditions of fracture, vacuum deposition and ionizing radiation. Active capture depends upon anomalous adsorption to retain noble gases on a surface long enough to be captured in a growing surface film as it is deposited. The fundamental principle may be the impingement onto the growing film with sufficient energy to liberate surface electrons (work function energy of a few electronvolts) so that they are retained by anomalous adsorption long enough to be entrapped in the growing surface. Trapping efficiencies of ~1% have been observed for Kr and Xe in laboratory experiments, implying a fundamentally new mechanism for the incorporation of heavy noble gases onto surfaces. It may play a role in explaining the large concentrations of planetary noble gases contained in phase-Q.
    • Plagioclase-rich chondrules in the reduced CV chondrites: Evidence for complex formation history and genetic links between calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and ferromagnesian chondrules

      Krot, A. N.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Keil, K. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      Plagioclase-rich chondrules (PRCs) in the reduced CV chondrites Efremovka, Leoville, Vigarano and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 94329 consist of magnesian low-Ca pyroxene, Al-Ti-Cr-rich pigeonite and augite, forsterite, anorthitic plagioclase, FeNi-metal-sulfide nodules, and crystalline mesostasis composed of silica, anorthitic plagioclase and Al-Ti-Cr-rich augite. The silica grains in the mesostases of the CV PRCs are typically replaced by hedenbergitic pyroxenes, whereas anorthitic plagioclase is replaced by feldspathoids (nepheline and minor sodalite). Some of the PRCs contain regions that are texturally and mineralogically similar to type I chondrules and consist of forsterite, low-Ca pyroxene and abundant FeNi-metal nodules. Several PRCs are surrounded by igneous rims or form independent compound objects. Twelve PRCs contain relic calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) composed of anorthite, spinel, high-Ca pyroxene, +/- forsterite, and +/- Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene. Anorthite of these CAIs is generally more heavily replaced by feldspathoids than anorthitic plagioclase of the host chondrules. This suggests that either the alteration predated formation of the PRCs or that anorthite of the relic CAIs was more susceptible to the alteration than anorthitic plagioclase of the host chondrules. These observations and the presence of igneous rims around PRCs and independent compound PRCs suggest that the CV PRCs may have had a complex, multistage formation history compared to a more simple formation history of the CR PRCs. Relatively high abundances of moderately-volatile elements such as Cr, Mn and Si in the PRCs suggests that these chondrules could not have been produced by volatilization of ferromagnesian chondrule precursors or by melting of refractory materials only. We infer instead that PRCs in carbonaceous chondrites formed by melting of the reduced chondrule precursors (magnesian olivine and pyroxene, FeNi-metal) mixed with refractory materials (relic CAIs) composed of anorthite, spinel, high-Ca pyroxene, and forsterite. The mineralogical, chemical and textural similarities of the PRCs in several carbonaceous chondrite groups (CV, CO, CH, CR) and common presence of relic CAIs in these chondrules suggest that PRCs may have formed in the region(s) intermediate between the regions where CAIs and ferromagnesian chondrules originated.
    • A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling rates of chondrules

      Desch, S. J.; Connolly, H. C. (The Meteoritical Society, 2002-01-01)
      We present a model for the thermal processing of particles in shock waves typical of the solar nebula. This shock model improves on existing models in that the dissociation and recombination of H2 and the evaporation of particles are accounted for in their effects on the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Also, besides thermal exchange with the gas and gas-drag heating, particles can be heated by absorbing the thermal radiation emitted by other particles. The flow of radiation is calculated using the equations of radiative transfer in a slab geometry. We compute the thermal histories of particles as they encounter and pass through the shock. We apply this shock model to the melting and cooling of chondrules in the solar nebula. We constrain the combinations of shock speed and gas density needed for chondrules to reach melting temperatures, and show that these are consistent with shock waves generated by gravitational instabilities in the protoplanetary disk. After their melting, cooling rates of chondrules in the range 10-1000 K h^(-1) are naturally reproduced by the shock model. Chondrules are kept warm by the reservoir of hot shocked gas, which cools only as fast as the dust grains and chondrules themselves can radiate away the gas's energy. We predict a positive correlation between the concentration of chondrules in a region and the cooling rates of chondrules in that region. This correlation is supported by the unusually high frequency of (rapidly cooled) barred chondrules among compound chondrules, which must have collided preferentially in regions of high chondrule density. We discuss these and other compelling consistencies between the meteoritic record and the shock wave model of chondrule formation.