Endoscopically Assisted Targeted Keyhole Retrosigmoid Approaches for Microvascular Decompression: Quantitative Anatomic Study
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
DescriptionA Thesis submitted to The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.
AbstractOBJECTIVE: We describe and quantitatively assess minimally invasive keyhole retrosigmoid approaches targeted to the upper, middle, and lower cranial nerve (CN) complexes of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). METHODS: Anatomic dissections were performed on 10 sides of 5 fixed, silicone-injected cadaver heads. Surgical views through various trajectories were assessed in endoscopic videos and 3-dimensional (3D) interactive virtual reality microscope views. Surgical freedom and angles of attack to the proximal and distal areas of CN complexes of the CPA were compared among upper and lower keyholes and conventional retrosigmoid craniotomy using neuronavigation. RESULTS: Compared with keyholes, the conventional approach had superior surgical freedom to most areas except for the distal CN V, the root of CN VII, and the root of CN IX, where differences were not significant. The conventional retrosigmoid approach provided a larger horizontal angle of attack than either the upper or lower keyholes for all selected areas; however, the vertical angles of attack were not different. Splitting the petrosal fissure resulted in a significant increase in the vertical angle of attack to the root zones of CNs V and VII but not to the distal areas of these nerves or CN IX. Illustrative cases of endoscope-assisted keyhole retrosigmoid approaches for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are presented. - CONCLUSIONS: Targeted keyhole retrosigmoid approaches require detailed understanding of the 3D anatomy of the CPA to create appropriate locations of corridors, including skin incisions and keyholes. Endoscope assistance complements the standard microsurgical technique by maximizing the visualization and identification of the delicate neurovascular structures.