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dc.contributor.authorMcCray, Christopher D.
dc.contributor.authorGyakum, John R.
dc.contributor.authorAtallah, Eyad H.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-02T23:27:18Z
dc.date.available2020-09-02T23:27:18Z
dc.date.issued2020-03-13
dc.identifier.citationMcCray, C. D., J. R. Gyakum, and E. H. Atallah, 2020: Regional Thermodynamic Characteristics Distinguishing Long- and Short-Duration Freezing Rain Events over North America. Wea. Forecasting, 35, 657–671, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-19-0179.1.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0882-8156
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/waf-d-19-0179.1
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/642367
dc.description.abstractFreezing rain is an especially hazardous winter weather phenomenon that remains particularly challenging to forecast. Here, we identify the salient thermodynamic characteristics distinguishing long-duration (six or more hours) freezing rain events from short-duration (2-4 h) events in three regions of the United States and Canada from 1979 to 2016. In the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, strong surface cold-air advection is not common during freezing rain events. Colder onset temperatures at the surface and in the near-surface cold layer support longer-duration events there, allowing heating mechanisms (e.g., the release of latent heat of fusion when rain freezes at the surface) to act for longer periods before the surface reaches 0 degrees C and precipitation transitions to rain. In the south-central United States, cold air at the surface is replenished via continuous cold-air advection, reducing the necessity of cold onset surface temperatures for event persistence. Instead, longer-duration events are associated with warmer and deeper >0 degrees C warm layers aloft and stronger advection of warm and moist air into this layer, delaying its erosion via cooling mechanisms such as melting. Finally, in the southeastern United States, colder and especially drier onset conditions in the cold layer are associated with longer-duration events, with evaporative cooling crucial to maintaining the subfreezing surface temperatures necessary for freezing rain. Through an improved understanding of the regional conditions supporting freezing rain event persistence, we hope to provide useful information to forecasters in their attempt to predict these potentially damaging events.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherAMER METEOROLOGICAL SOCen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 American Meteorological Society.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectSynoptic climatologyen_US
dc.subjectSynoptic-scale processesen_US
dc.subjectWinteren_US
dc.subjectcool seasonen_US
dc.subjectFreezing precipitationen_US
dc.subjectMixed precipitationen_US
dc.subjectOperational forecastingen_US
dc.titleRegional Thermodynamic Characteristics Distinguishing Long- and Short-Duration Freezing Rain Events over North Americaen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Scien_US
dc.identifier.journalWEATHER AND FORECASTINGen_US
dc.description.note6 month embargo; published online: 13 March 2020en_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.journaltitleWeather and Forecasting
dc.source.volume35
dc.source.issue2
dc.source.beginpage657
dc.source.endpage671


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