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dc.contributor.authorBenzel, Katie R.
dc.contributor.authorMosley, Tracy K.
dc.contributor.authorMosley, Jeffrey C.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-05T07:19:54Z
dc.date.available2020-09-05T07:19:54Z
dc.date.issued2009-11-01
dc.identifier.citationBenzel, K. R., Mosley, T. K., & Mosley, J. C. (2009). Defoliation timing effects on spotted knapweed seed production and viability. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 62(6), 550-556.
dc.identifier.issn0022-409X
dc.identifier.doi10.2111/08-191.1
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/643061
dc.description.abstractSpotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), a perennial invasive forb that reproduces largely by seed, often forms new flowers after prescribed sheep grazing or mowing is applied during the bolting or flowering stage. It is unknown if these new flowers produce viable seeds by the end of the growing season. The purpose of this 2-yr study was to determine the appropriate timing (or timings) or combination (or combinations) of timings of defoliation on spotted knapweed to reduce its viable seed production. Spotted knapweed plants on foothill rangeland in west-central Montana were hand-clipped at seven different timings and frequencies of defoliation: June (bolting stage); July (late-bud-early flowering stage); August (full-flowering stage); June + July; June + August; July + August; or June + July + August. Unclipped plants were controls. Plants clipped in the bolting stage were defoliated at 35-40% relative utilization. Plants clipped at all other timings had 100% of their buds and flowers removed, plus 3 cm of each bud or flower stem. Plant response was evaluated from mid-August through September, whenever the seed heads of each treatment’s plants reached maturity but while their seed-head bracts remained tightly closed. Clipping at any timing or combination of timings reduced the number of buds and flower heads per plant (P < 0.01), number of seeds per plant (P < 0.01), percentage of viability of seeds (P < 0.01), and number of viable seeds per plant (P < 0.01) compared with no clipping. Clipping during the bolting stage reduced the number of viable seeds by nearly 90% compared with no clipping. Clipping during the late-bud-early-flower or full-flower stage reduced the number of viable seeds by nearly 100% compared with no clipping. Spotted knapweed defoliation via prescribed sheep grazing or mowing in summer should suppress viable seed production of spotted knapweed. 
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherSociety for Range Management
dc.relation.urlhttps://rangelands.org/
dc.rightsCopyright © Society for Range Management.
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectCentaurea maculosa
dc.subjectCentaurea stoebe
dc.subjectclipping
dc.subjectprescribed sheep grazing
dc.subjecttargeted grazing
dc.subjectweeds
dc.titleDefoliation Timing Effects on Spotted Knapweed Seed Production and Viability
dc.typetext
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.journalRangeland Ecology & Management
dc.description.collectioninformationThe Rangeland Ecology & Management archives are made available by the Society for Range Management and the University of Arizona Libraries. Contact lbry-journals@email.arizona.edu for further information.
dc.eprint.versionFinal published version
dc.description.admin-noteMigrated from OJS platform August 2020
dc.source.volume62
dc.source.issue6
dc.source.beginpage550-556
refterms.dateFOA2020-09-05T07:19:54Z


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