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dc.contributor.authorRalphs, M. H.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-18T05:00:52Z
dc.date.available2020-09-18T05:00:52Z
dc.date.issued2002-05-01
dc.identifier.citationRalphs, M. H. (2002). Ecological relationships between poisonous plants and rangeland condition: a review. Journal of Range Management, 55(3), 285-290.
dc.identifier.issn0022-409X
dc.identifier.doi10.2307/4003136
dc.identifier.doi10.2458/azu_jrm_v55i3_ralphs
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/643660
dc.description.abstractIn the past, excessive numbers of livestock on western U.S. rangelands, reoccurring droughts, and lack of management resulted in retrogression of plant communities. Poisonous plants and other less palatable species increased with declining range condition and livestock were forced to eat these poisonous species because of a shortage of desirable forage, resulting in large, catastrophic losses. The level of management on most western rangelands has improved during the last 60 years, resulting in marked improvement in range condition; yet losses to poisonous plants still occur, though not as large and catastrophic as in the past. Some poisonous species are major components of the pristine, pre-European plant communities [tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi Huth), Veratrum californicum Durand, water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii (DC.)Coult. Rose), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson), and various oak species (Quercus spp.)]. Although populations of many poisonous seral increaser species have declined with better management, they are still components of plant communities and fluctuate with changing precipitation patterns [locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.), lupine (Lupinus spp.), death camas (Zigadenus spp.), snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.), threadleaf groundsel (Senecio longolobis Benth.), low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz.), timber milkvetch (Astragalus miser Dougl. ex Hook.), redstem peavine (A. emoryanus (Rydb.) Cory), western bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata D.C.), orange sneezeweed (Helenium hoopesii Gray), twin leaf senna (Cassia roemeriana Schelle), and white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum Houtt)]. Many of the alien invader species are poisonous: [Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey, St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum L.), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.), hounds tongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.), leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) and other knapweeds (Centaurea spp.)]. Poisoning occurs when livestock consume these plants because they are either relatively more palatable than the associated forage, or from management mistakes of running short of desirable forage.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherSociety for Range Management
dc.relation.urlhttps://rangelands.org/
dc.rightsCopyright © Society for Range Management.
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectZigadenus
dc.subjectOxytropis
dc.subjectAstragalus
dc.subjectLupinus
dc.subjectavoidance conditioning
dc.subjectrange condition
dc.subjectplant communities
dc.subjectovergrazing
dc.subjectrange management
dc.subjectrangelands
dc.subjectDelphinium
dc.subjectpoisonous plants
dc.subjectrangeland condition
dc.subjectlarkspur
dc.subjectDelphinium spp.
dc.subjectlocoweed
dc.subjectAstragalus spp.
dc.subjectOxytropis spp.|lupine
dc.subjectLupinus spp.
dc.subjectdeath camas
dc.subjectZigadenus spp.
dc.titleEcological relationships between poisonous plants and rangeland condition: A Review
dc.typetext
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Range Management
dc.description.collectioninformationThe Journal of Range Management archives are made available by the Society for Range Management and the University of Arizona Libraries. Contact lbry-journals@email.arizona.edu for further information.
dc.eprint.versionFinal published version
dc.description.admin-noteMigrated from OJS platform August 2020
dc.source.volume55
dc.source.issue3
dc.source.beginpage285-290
refterms.dateFOA2020-09-18T05:00:52Z


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