algae and seaweeds
Rana luteiventris Thompson
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CitationBull, E. L., & Hayes, M. P. (2000). Livestock effects on reproduction of the Columbia spotted frog. Journal of Range Management, 53(3), 291-294.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractWe evaluated reproduction and recruitment of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris Thompson) in 70 ponds used by beef cattle and in 57 ponds not used by beef cattle in northeastern Oregon. No significant differences were detected in the number of egg masses or recently metamorphosed frogs in grazed and ungrazed sites. No pond characteristic measured could predict egg mass numbers, but percent aquatic vegetation and dissolved oxygen had some ability to predict recently metamorphosed frog numbers. Both variables explained 65% of the variability in recently metamorphosed frog numbers in grazed ponds. At ungrazed ponds, 4 additional variables (presence of fish, elevation, percent of rock, and conductivity) were required to achieve the same level of variability in predicting recently transformed frog abundance. The egg mass volume was larger at grazed than at ungrazed ponds suggesting that grazed ponds may have a greater food abundance or larger (older) individuals.