Picloram, fertilizer, and defoliation interactions on spotted knapweed reinvasion
integrated weed management
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CitationJacobs, J. S., Sheley, R. L., & Carter, J. R. (2000). Picloram, fertilizer, and defoliation interactions on spotted knapweed reinvasion. Journal of Range Management, 53(3), 309-314.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractSpotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) management may be enhanced by integrating strategies that stimulate and maintain competitive grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if picloram, fertilizer, and timing and frequency of grass defoliation could be integrated to minimize spotted knapweed reinvasion. Sixteen chemical treatments [4 picloram rates (0.00, 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg a.i. ha- 1) and 4 fertilizer rates (source: 16-20-0, N-P-K; material: 0.0, 66, 132, 198 kg ha-1)] were applied in the spring of 1994 to 4 by 4 m plots and factorially arranged in a randomized-complete-block design. Within each plot, 6 grass defoliation treatments were randomly applied to 1 by 1 m sub-plots. From 1994 through 1997, 60% of the aboveground grass biomass was hand clipped and removed from the plots during the spring, summer, fall, alternating spring/fall, all 3 seasons. A control received no grass defoliation. The experiment was replicated 4 times at 2 sites dominated by spotted knapweed. At peak standing crop in 1997 spotted knapweed density, grass and spotted knapweed biomass; and percent cover of spotted knapweed, grass, litter, and bare ground were measured. Data were analyzed as a split-plot using analysis of variance. Four years after treatment all rates of picloram reduced spotted knapweed density, biomass, and cover, and increased grass yield. Nitrogen and P fertilizer tended to increase spotted knapweed density and biomass. Nitrogen and P fertilizer plus defoliation in all 3 seasons caused a greater increase in spotted knapweed reinvasion at the site with Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) than the site with timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leys.). Fall-only defoliation and no defoliation appear to deter spotted knapweed reinvasion better than defoliation in all 3 seasons and alternately in the spring and fall.