Animal health problems caused by silicon and other mineral imbalances
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CitationMayland, H. F., & Shewmaker, G. E. (2001). Animal health problems caused by silicon and other mineral imbalances. Journal of Range Management, 54(4), 441-446.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractPlant growth depends upon C, H, O, and at least 13 mineral elements. Six of these (N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S) macro-elements normally occur in plants at concentrations greater than 1,000 mg kg(-1) level. The remaining micro-elements (B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn) normally occur in plants at concentrations less than 50 mg kg(-1). Trace amounts of other elements (e.g., Co, Na, Ni, and Si) may be beneficial for plants. Silicon concentrations may range upwards to 50,000 mg kg(-1) in some forage grasses. Mineral elements required by animals include the macro-elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S; the trace or micro-elements Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn; and the ultra-trace elements Cr, Li, and Ni. When concentrations of these elements in forages get 'out of whack' their bioavailability to animals may be jeopardized. Interactions of K x Mg x Ca, Ca x P, Se x S, and Cu x Mo x S are briefly mentioned here because more detail will be found in the literature. Limited published information is available on Si, so we have provided more detail. Silicon provides physical support to plants and may reduce susceptibility to pests. However, Si may have negative effects on digestibility and contribute to urinary calculi in animals.
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SEDCON: A Model of Nutrient and Heavy Metal Losses in Suspended SedimentGabbert, William A.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1982-04-24)A prototypical computer simulation model has been developed to aid watershed managers in estimating impacts of alternative land management practices on nutrient and heavy metal losses due to transported sediment on forested watersheds of the southwestern United States. The model, called SEDCON, allows users at remote locations with modest computer terminal equipment and commonly available data to obtain reliable estimates of nutrient and heavy metal concentrations in suspended sediment originating on uniformly-stocked, forested watersheds in the Southwest. SEDCON has been structured in an interactive mode to facilitate its use by persons not familiar with computer operations. Written in FORTRAN IV computer language, the model requires approximately 5000 words of core. SEDCON is operative on a DEC-10 computer at the University of Arizona.