Economic damage to forage crops by native ungulates as perceived by farmers and ranchers in Montana
Cervus elaphus canadensis
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CitationIrby, L. R., Zidack, W. E., Johnson, J. B., & Saltiel, J. (1996). Economic damage to forage crops by native ungulates as perceived by farmers and ranchers in Montana. Journal of Range Management, 49(4), 375-380.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractThe perceived economic damage to forage crops in Montana attributed to native ungulates during 1992 was estimated using a mail survey of 2,200 randomly selected farms and ranches. The 1,120 respondents indicated that wild ungulates were present on 97% of the agricultural operations in Montana. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus [Zimmermann]) were the most widespread wild ungulate species and were most frequently cited as responsible for damage to forage crops by those respondents who reported damage. Damage to forage crops was most frequently reported in southwestern Montana and from agricultural operations with gross annual sales > 200,000. The aggregate perceived economic damage to forage crops by wild ungulates in Montana during 1992 was 12.2 million.