standard operative temperature
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CitationParker, K. L., & Gillingham, M. P. (1990). Estimates of critical thermal environments for mule deer. Journal of Range Management, 43(1), 73-81.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractMule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) can be thermally stressed under a wide range of ambient conditions. We developed a model that provides examples of the combinations of wind, solar radiation, and air temperature that may result in thermally critical environments for standing, full-fed adult mule deer during winter in snow-covered and snow-free, open habitats, and in meadows in summer. Critical thermal combinations of environmental variables are shown as 3-dimensional surfaces and tables. Animal size, age, pelage characteristics, and ground cover (height and albedo) further affect the energy costs for thermoregulation by mule deer. The need for habitat managers to consider the provision of thermal cover to reduce heat or cold stress in mule deer depends on the combinations of environmental variables in a particular habitat and geographic location. Implications, limitations, and management considerations of our estimates are discussed.