Survival and growth of globemallow [Sphaeralcea] species in dry land spaced-plant nurseries
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CitationPendery, B. M., & Rumbaugh, M. D. (1990). Survival and growth of globemallow [Sphaeralcea] species in dry land spaced-plant nurseries. Journal of Range Management, 43(5), 428-432.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractGlobemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) have potential in rangeland seedings. Thirty-seven accessions of globemallow were grown at 2 sites in northern Utah and southern Idaho to quantify their agronomic attributes. Data for transplant survival, standing crop, and seed yield were collected in 1987 and 1988. Total globemallow survival (mean = 92%) and seed weights (mean = 0.8 g/plant) differed significantly (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) among locations. Plant weight (mean = 102 g/plint) differed significantly (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) among locations, species (S. grossulariifolia, S. coccinea, S. parvifolia, S. munroana, and interspecific hybrids), and years. In a second study, 5 globemallow accessions of 2 species and ‘Spredor 2’ alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown with ‘Hycrest’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum X A. cristatum) to determine forage yields from 1985-1988. Globemallows produced significantly (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) less forage (62 g/ml) than alfalfa (389 g/m2). Forage yield of S. munroana (76 g/m2) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from that of S. grossulariifolia (48 g/m2). Forage yield of crested wheatgrass (mean = 101 g/m2) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) when grown with globemallow versus alfalfa. Plant breeding and selection could probably improve these agronomic attributes for globemallows seeded on rangelands.
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Element concentrations in globemallow herbageRumbaugh, M. D.; Mayland, H. F.; Pendery, B. M.; Shewmaker, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 1993-03-01)Globemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) are native, drought-resistant forbs of interest for inclusion in seed mixtures for semiarid rangeland renovation. Little is known of their nutritional value for ungulates. We measured element concentrations in representative globemallow species and evaluated their adequacy for livestock nutrition. We also correlated forage selection by sheep (Ovis aries) with element concentrations. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. X A. desertorum (Fisch.) Schult.], and 13 accessions of globemallows [S. coccinea (Pursh) Rydb., S. grossulariifolia (H. & A.) Rydb., S. munroana (Dougl) Spach., and S. parvifolia A. Nels.] were transplanted into replicated grazing trials in southern Idaho. Herbage was sampled and the pastures were grazed by sheep in the fall of 2 years and in the spring of the following 2 years. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in crested wheatgrass were lower than in forbs. Differences between seasons were greater than the differences among globemallow species. Forage selection ratios were positively associated with the N concentration of globemallow leaves and with the Ca:P ratio of globemallow stems but were negatively associated with stem Zn concentrations. Herbage from pastures containing crested wheatgrass with globemallows and/or alfalfa would meet the dietary element requirements of beef cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep.
Germination Response of Three Globemallow Species to Chemical TreatmentRoth, T. E.; Holechek, J. L.; Hussain, M. Y. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)Scarlet (Sphaeralcea coccinea), orange (Sphaeralcea munroana), and gooseberry globemallow (Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia) seed were soaked in 18 m sulfuric acid; 1 m, 1,4-dioxane; and sulfuric acid plus dioxane to increase germination. A 3 to 4-hour soak in dioxane significantly (P<.05) improved germination of all species over the control, and was the best treatment when data were pooled across species. Scarlet globemallow had the highest germination when subjected to 10-minute soak in sulfuric acid. Dioxane is a highly flammable, potentially cancer inducing chemical not readily available to most personnel interested in seeding globemallow. In contrast, sulfuric acid is a readily available chemical that poses a relatively minimal hazard to human health if handled correctly. A 10-minute soak in sulfuric acid appears to be a very practical treatment for improving the germination of scarlet and gooseberry globemallow. However, orange globemallow germination (P>.05) was not improved by sulfuric acid treatment.
Forb and shrub effects on ruminal fermentation in cattleArthun, D.; Holechek, J. L.; Wallace, J. D.; Gaylean, M. L.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-11-01)One experiment involving steers fed low-quality grass diets singly and mixed with native forbs, native shrubs, or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was conducted to compare the influence of these diets on ruminal fermentation. Native forbs used in our study were a 50:50 mixture of scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea Nutt.) and leatherleaf croton (Croton pottsii Lam.); native shrubs were a 50:50 mixture of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh.]) and mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.). Neither passage rate of indigestible neutral detergent fiber nor fluid passage rate differed (P > .10) among the 4 diets. Ruminal pH did not differ (P > .10) among diets, and ruminal ammonia concentrations differed (P < .10) inconsistently among diets, depending on time after feeding. Likewise, total ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations did not differ (P > .10) among diets. Except for butyrate [less (P < .05) with alfalfa], proportions of individual VFA showed little difference among diets. Based on these data, adding forbs or shrubs with low-quality forage diets appears to elicit few changes in ruminal digests kinetics and fermentation patterns compared to including alfalfa hay.