CitationSpringfield, H. W. (1974). Using a grid to estimate production and utilization of shrubs. Journal of Range Management, 27(1), 76-78.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
AbstractProduction of fourwing saltbush plants was estimated from photographs against a 1-inch grid. All squares partially or completely obscured by plant material were counted. Utilization of several shrub species was estimated from photos taken before and after browsing by deer. With modification, the technique could be used for other species and situations.