Balance of Ration Nutrients and Efficiency of Feed Utilization by Ruminants. A Review.
AuthorMcCullough, M. E.
MetadataShow full item record
CitationMcCullough, M. E. (1955). Balance of ration nutrients and efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. A review.. Journal of Range Management, 8(2), 61-65.
PublisherSociety for Range Management
JournalJournal of Range Management
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Animal health problems caused by silicon and other mineral imbalancesMayland, H. F.; Shewmaker, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 2001-07-01)Plant growth depends upon C, H, O, and at least 13 mineral elements. Six of these (N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S) macro-elements normally occur in plants at concentrations greater than 1,000 mg kg(-1) level. The remaining micro-elements (B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn) normally occur in plants at concentrations less than 50 mg kg(-1). Trace amounts of other elements (e.g., Co, Na, Ni, and Si) may be beneficial for plants. Silicon concentrations may range upwards to 50,000 mg kg(-1) in some forage grasses. Mineral elements required by animals include the macro-elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S; the trace or micro-elements Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn; and the ultra-trace elements Cr, Li, and Ni. When concentrations of these elements in forages get 'out of whack' their bioavailability to animals may be jeopardized. Interactions of K x Mg x Ca, Ca x P, Se x S, and Cu x Mo x S are briefly mentioned here because more detail will be found in the literature. Limited published information is available on Si, so we have provided more detail. Silicon provides physical support to plants and may reduce susceptibility to pests. However, Si may have negative effects on digestibility and contribute to urinary calculi in animals.
Contrasting responses of Intermountain West grasses to soil nitrogenMonaco, T. A.; Johnson, D. A.; Norton, J. M.; Jones, T. A.; Connors, K. J.; Norton, J. B.; Redinbaugh, M. B. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)The mechanisms responsible for soil-N-mediated species replacement of native perennial grasses by the invasive annual grasses cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) on rangelands are not completely understood. In addition, the contributions of distinct forms of inorganic N (i.e., NH4+ and NO3-) to these shifts in species composition are currently unclear. Consequently, we conducted a greenhouse experiment to test 2 hypotheses: 1) that low N availability reduces growth (root and shoot) and N allocation of invasive annual seedlings more than native perennial species, and 2) that seedling growth and N allocation of invasive annual grasses is more responsive than native perennial grasses when supplied with NO3- relative to NH4+. We grew seedlings of 2 annual grasses and the native perennial grasses bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love), and 4 populations of squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey; E. multisetus [J.G. Smith] M.E. Jones) in separate pots and exposed them to treatments differing in N form and availability for 17 weeks. Unexpectedly, root and shoot growth of annual grasses were equal or greater than native perennial grasses under low N availability. Annual grasses took up more NO3- and allocated more growth and N to shoots than the perennial grasses (P 0.05). Perennial grasses had significantly greater root:shoot dry mass ratios than the invasive annual grasses across treatments (P 0.05). Invasive annual and native perennial grasses both had greater (P 0.05) shoot and root mass and allocated more N to these structures when supplied with NO3- relative to NH4+. The ecological implications of these growth and N allocation patterns in response to N availability and form provide important clues regarding the specific traits responsible for differences in competitive ability between invasive annual and native perennial grasses on semiarid rangelands.
Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in modified rangeland communitiesWhalen, J. K.; Willms, W. D.; Dormaar, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 2003-11-01)Rangelands contain between 10 and 30% of global soil organic C reserves and may be an important sink for atmospheric CO2, but less C tends to be stored in rangelands cultivated for agricultural use than undisturbed rangelands. Establishing perennial plant communities on formerly cultivated rangelands is expected to stabilize soil properties and increase the amount of C stored in rangeland soils, but there is little information on what plant communities are most effective at building soil C reserves. The purpose of this study was to compare soil C, N, and P pools in ungrazed native rangelands with ungrazed, unfertilized rangelands that were cultivated and then 1) abandoned, 2) seeded with non-native perennial grasses or legumes, or 3) cropped annually for 5 to 6 years. Three study sites in southern Alberta, Canada with native Stipa-Bouteloua, Stipa-Bouteloua-Agropyron and Festuca campestris plant communities represented the major ecotypes of the Northern Great Plains. The total C, N, and P content of rangeland soils were greatest at the Festuca campestris site, followed by the Stipa-Bouteloua-Agropyron and Stipa-Bouteloua sites, probably due to climatic conditions (precipitation and temperature). Generally, soils under modified plant communities contained less total C and N than soils under native rangeland, but the total P content was related more to site preparation than experimental treatments. Soils under alfalfa, orchardgrass and bromegrass tended to have more total C and N than soils cultivated annually in continuous wheat or wheat-fallow systems. The accumulation of C and N in soils under permanent cover was not related to net primary productivity and may be influenced more by the chemical composition and rate of decomposition of plant residues.