An Observation of Racial and Gender Disparities in Congestive Heart Failure Admissions Using the National Inpatient Sample
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Cardiol, Coll Med
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CitationTandon, V., Stringer, B., Conner, C., Gabriel, A., Tripathi, B., Balakumaran, K., & Chen, K. (2020). An Observation of Racial and Gender Disparities in Congestive Heart Failure Admissions Using the National Inpatient Sample. Cureus, 12(10).
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AbstractBackground Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions in the United States. The purpose of this study was to analyze the racial and gender disparities that occur in CHF admissions and determine the impact of these disparities on medical expenditure. Methods We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2009 to 2014 for patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of CHF, and further stratified the cohort on the basis of race and sex. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the association between CHF and total charges along with other variables such as mortality, length of stay (LOS), and number of procedures. Results There were a total of 5,491,050 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF from 977,850 in 2009 to 901,425 in 2014. Females accounted for 49.7%. Total charges for CHF admission were highest in Asians at an average cost of $59,668. African Americans had the lowest mortality rate at 1.75%, however, they also had an average age of admission of 63.47 years, compared to Caucasian at 76.76 (p<0.05). Total charges for males were $42,920 and $36,744 for females (p<0.05). Males also had more procedures at 1.16 vs 0.98 for females (p<0.05). Elixhauser mortality score was higher in males than females at 5.95 vs 5.42 (p<0.05). Conclusion Healthcare disparities exist in CHF admissions in both contexts of race and gender. Further studies are required to pinpoint the source of these differences not only to address mortality but also expenditure costs.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © Copyright 2020 Tandon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.