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CitationNydal, R., Gulliksen, S., & Lövseth, K. (1980). An analysis of shielding efficiency for 14C counters. Radiocarbon, 22(2), 470-478.
PublisherAmerican Journal of Science
AbstractThe "shielding" efficiency of the guard counters has been a main scope of the present investigation. Our special guard counters consist of closed shells (ca 3cm thick) filled with propane at 1.2 atmospheres pressure. These guard counters are nearly 100 percent efficient against charged particles, and 1 to 2 percent against gamma and neutrons. The efficiency has now been studied more in detail in an arrangement with four guard shells around a 14C counter. For each extra guard shell, the cosmic fraction of the counter background was reduced by ca 13 percent. The reduction does not involve penetrating high energy charged particles, but is related to ray showers penetrating the guards. A thicker old lead shield between 14C counter and the guard counters also reduces the background and serves the same purpose. In order to approach underground conditions for the 1.5 liter counter background (0.32 +/- 0.01 c/min), most of the shielding material has to be put inside guard shells. An ordinary guard counter combined with an extra guard on top of the iron shield is very efficient. A background of 0.48 +/- 0.01 c/min has already been obtained.