US Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, Radiocarbon Dates XV: Mauna Loa and Kilauea Volcanoes, Hawaii
Hawaii County Hawaii
East Pacific Ocean Islands
MetadataShow full item record
CitationKelley, M. L., Spiker, E. C., Lipman, P. W., Lockwood, J. P., Holcomb, R. T., & Rubin, M. (1979). US Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, radiocarbon dates XV: Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Hawaii. Radiocarbon, 21(2), 306-320.
PublisherAmerican Journal of Science
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The role of indigenous elites in culture contact and change: Interactional analysis of intercultural exchange events in early historic period Hawai'i, 1778-1819.Underwood, Jane H..; Rathje, William L.; Dobyns, Susan Dianne.; Culbert, T. Patrick; Longacre, William A. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Early contact period studies of first intercultural interactions are important for understanding both traditional pre-contact society and the changes brought about by culture contact. Using documentary records kept by early Euroamerican visitors, the sociolinguistic technique of interactional analysis was employed to identify and analyze specific Euroamerican descriptions of intercultural exchange interactions during early contact period Hawai'i (1778-1819). Statistical analyses revealed clear and consistent differences in the reported exchange experiences of high and low status individuals from both cultures. In the majority of the seven hundred and one (701) events, high status individuals from both cultures interacted together or low status individuals from both cultures interacted together. Interactions with mixed high and low status interactants rarely were reported. High status interactions were described in more detail than were low status interactions, and high status interactants were associated much more frequently with the rarer or less common aspects of exchange than were low status interactants. This was true for type of exchange, nature of exchange (whether mediated or direct), complexity of event description, and both Euroamerican and Hawaiian exchange goods. Narrator and voyage characteristics exhibited similarly distinct status associations. The early historic period was not a homogeneous or monolithic period. All major aspects of exchange events demonstrated simple diachronic change, and many were significant under more powerful statistical analysis as well. Some temporal variations were due to changes in narrator characteristics, particularly purpose of voyage. Other changes reflected shifting methods of control by both Euroamerican and Hawaiian high status individuals as well as the consolidation of power by high status Hawaiian ali'i. Mediated events were especially good indicators of these developments. A complementary analysis of thefts revealed clear status distinctions between low status Hawaiian thieves, low status Euroamerican victims, and high status Hawaiian agents of return. These descriptions indicated that thefts were neither numerous nor particularly important. Thus, interactional analysis provided an alternative to anecdotal ethnohistoric analysis. At the same time, it demonstrated the importance of analyzing collections of ethnohistoric documents in order to assess the variation (and the meaning of that variation) both within and between the individual documents.
Application and verification of several rainfall-runoff models in HawaiiMurashige, Jo Ann Emi.; Ince, Simon (The University of Arizona., 1983)The need for reliable predictive models for water resources decision making provided the impetus to apply several rainfall-runoff models, developed for the continental United States, to an urban watershed in Hawaii. In this study, the Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator (ILLUDAS), the Penn State Urban Runoff Model (PSURM), and the Quasi-Linear Spatially Distributed Cell Model (CELMOD) were applied to the St. Louis Heights Watershed. Parameter values were determined for each model on the basis of peak discharge, time to peak and runoff volume accuracy. These characteristics were then used to evaluate the models. Each model performed well in simulating the observed hydrographs, but the ILLUDAS was the most successful in simulating peak discharge. Studies into the relationship between the infiltration response and the Soil Conservation Service soil grouping, and application of Izzard's equation to a wider range of conditions would facilitate the application of these models.
Evolution of mid-plate hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts.Chase, Clement G.; Liu, Mian.; Richardson, Randall M.; Wallace, Terry C.; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Gehrels, George E. (The University of Arizona., 1989)Studies of the evolution of hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts are presented in three parts in this dissertation. In part 1, the evolution of mid-plate hotspot swells are simulated numerically as an oceanic plate rides over a hot, upwelling mantle plume. The transient heat transfer equations, with time- and space-dependent boundary conditions, are solved in cylindrical coordinates. Geophysical data are used to constrain the models. Formation of the Hawaiian swell requires a mechanism of convective thinning of the lithosphere. The models constrain the Hawaiian heat source to have a maximum anomalous temperature of 250-300°C, and a perturbing heat flux 5-6 times the background value. On the other hand, the Bermuda swell is likely produced by heat conduction due to weakness of the heat source. In part 2, an analytic model of axisymmetric mantle plumes is presented. Plume parameters beneath the lithosphere, which are constrained from the swell models, are used to infer the plume source regions. The Hawaiian plume likely originates near the core-mantle boundary, but other hotspots may have shallower sources. Chemical plumes are much narrower than thermal plumes because of low chemical diffusivity in the mantle. For mantle plumes driven by combined thermal-chemical diffusion, the chemical signature of the source regions may only be observed near plume centers. Finally, melt generation and extraction along the Hawaiian volcanic chain are discussed in part 3. As a part of the plate moves over the heat source, melting largely takes place in the region where the lithospheric material is engulfed and swept away by the flow of the heat source. At least three mantle components must be involved in the melt generation: the plume material, the asthenosphere, and the engulfed lithospheric material. Significant amount of melts may also come from direct melting of the upwelling plume at depths below the initial plate-plume boundary. Melt extracts continuously from an active partial melting zone of 10-20 km thick, which moves outward as heating and compaction proceed. The models explain quantitatively the general characteristics of Hawaiian volcanism as the result of plume-plate interaction.