AuthorWhite, Devin Alan
KeywordsHohokam culture -- Sonoran Desert.
Stone carving -- Sonoran Desert.
Stone implements -- Sonoran Desert.
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Sonoran Desert.
Sonoran Desert -- Antiquities.
North America -- Sonoran Desert.
MetadataShow full item record
Other TitlesArizona State Museum Archaeological Series No. 196
CitationWhite, Devin Alan. 2004. Hohokam Palettes. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series No. 196. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson.
AbstractThis study focuses on one of the few hallmark artifacts from the Hohokam Pre-Classic period: palettes. Previous research on palettes is synthesized and the nature of the prehistoric production, distribution, and use-lives of these artifacts is explored. The term "palette" is found to inadequately and inaccurately describe the many ways in which these artifacts were used within Hohokam society. In its place, the author suggests that the term "tablet" be used for the artifact class. Important byproducts of this study are life-size and highly accurate line drawings of over one thousand palettes, as well as a fully searchable relational database.
Series/Report no.Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series, 196
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FORAGING PARTY AND TERRITORY SIZE OF THE DESERT SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE HETEROTERMES AUREUS (SNYDER) IN A SONORAN DESERT GRASSLAND (ARIZONA).Nutting, William L.; JONES, SUSAN CATHERINE.; Huber, Roger T.; Terry, Irene L.; Brown, James H.; Kodric-Brown, Astrid (The University of Arizona., 1987)Foraging party and territory size of Heterotermes aureus (Snyder) were investigated on the Santa Rita Experimental Range south of Tucson, Arizona. A comparison of three techniques for delineating territorial extent suggested that the release and recapture of dyed termites was most useful, while agonistic behavior among termites may reflect past as well as current associations. Spatial and temporal patterns of termite attack on baits proved to be unreliable. Data obtained via the release and recapture of dyed termites indicated that most territories encompassed an area of several hundred to thousand square meters. These data sharply contrast with those obtained via spatial and temporal patterns of termite attack, which provided an estimate of 9.2 m² for average territory size. Although agonistic responses were useful for differentiating H. aureus colonies, the lack of this behavior among termites did not necessarily imply a current relationship, as they may have been from subgroups that previously had budded off from each other. These groups may be headed by neotenic reproductives, which were found for the first time under field conditions for this species. Data on foraging party size obtained via a mark-release-recapture technique indicated that many H. aureus colonies contained from ca. 50,000 to 300,000 foragers. However, the validity of these estimates is suspect because several of the assumptions of this technique were not met, i.e., marked individuals did not completely mix in the population, but their numbers tended to be more concentrated near release sites, and colonies may have represented open populations. However, exhaustive trapping data also indicated that colonies may contain tens or hundreds of thousands of foragers. As many as 100,000 foragers in a single colony were removed from fiberboard traps during a 1.5-year period. The average foraging party consisted of 1,456 individuals, of which 8.6% were soldiers.
Response of Desert Mule Deer to Habitat Alterations in the Lower Sonoran DesertKrausman, Paul R.; Alcala Galvan, Carlos Hugo; Krausman, Paul R.; Shaw, William W.; Mannan, R. William; Ruyle, George (The University of Arizona., 2005)About 1,600,000 ha of desert mule deer range in Mexico are currently altered with vegetation clear-cutting and establishment of buffelgrass pastures. Consequently, the availability of resources as cover and forage from scrub vegetation has been reduced for mule deer. No previous research has been conducted to investigate how desert mule deer respond to those alterations. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine movements of mule deer, evaluate their home range sizes and determine habitat use, and analyze their diets in areas of central and western Sonora, Mexico. The approach involved the use of radiotelemetry techniques and GIS programs to calculate home range sizes, examine selection of vegetation associations, and identify the specific components of habitat that distinguished the characteristics of selected sites by desert mule deer. I used the microhistological technique to determine botanical components of desert mule deer diets, and compare diets of desert mule deer and cattle in habitat with buffelgrass pastures. Diet analyses included spatial and temporal comparisons of diversity and similarity indices. Sizes of home ranges were larger in the more arid environments of western Sonora (27.3 km2) than in central Sonora (14.5 km2). Desert mule deer used altered habitat differently than use areas without buffelgrass, however, there was no difference in the size of home ranges of mule deer from inside buffelgrass areas and the size of home ranges of deer in native scrub vegetation. Thermal cover, ground cover, and percent of gravel in the ground were the variables that distinguished locations selected by desert mule deer. Desert mule deer selected xeroriparian vegetation and sites closer to water sources. Water sources may have influenced mule deer to stay in buffelgrass areas despite the lack of cover and forage from shrubs and trees. For diets of mule deer, I identified 96 plant species, 69 of which have not previously been reported as forage for this herbivore. Desert mule deer and cattle shared 45 forage species from central Sonora. However, biological overlap of diets occurred only for spring. Results from these studies provide information to understand ecological relationships of desert mule deer on altered habitats.
Desert Plants, Habitat and Agriculture in Relation to the Major Pattern of Cultural Differentiation in the O'odham People of the Sonoran DesertCrosswhite, Frank S.; Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981)