• Reconstructing Evaporation from Pine Tree Rings in Northern Mexico

      Pompa-García, M.; Camarero, J.J. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-07)
      Here we reconstructed evaporation using tree-ring width variability. Drought variability and its effects on forest growth have been mainly characterized by changes in precipitation and temperatures, whereas atmospheric drought and evaporation rates have been little investigated. The area of study corresponds to northern Mexico, a region where water resources are increasingly limited. We used correlation analyses to identify the months in which evaporation is most strongly related to tree-ring width series. Then, we built a linear regression model to predict seasonal winter-to-spring evaporation as a function of ring-width indices. Correlation analyses showed that the radial growth of P. cooperi decreased in response to reduced water availability and increased evaporation during the winter prior to the growing season, and also during spring and the early summer of the year of tree-ring formation. Pine growth mainly benefitted from wet and cool conditions from winter to early spring. Linear regression models used in reconstruction were statistically robust and allowed reconstructing January-to-April evaporation for the period 1900-2010. Our study contributes to a better understanding of historical changes in evaporation in northern Mexico and, most importantly, it also emphasizes how atmospheric moisture demand is linked to tree growth. Copyright © 2015 by The Tree-Ring Society.
    • Tree-Ring Investigation of Holocene Flood-Deposited Wood from the Oneida Lake Watershed, New York State

      Panyushkina, I.P.; Leavitt, S.W.; Domack, E.W.; Wiedenhoeft, A.C. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-07)
      Glacial deposition and fluvial/lacustrine sedimentation interact over terrains in central New York State to preserve a history of geological and hydrological events as well as hydroclimatic transitions. The lower reach of Fish Creek draining the eastern watershed of Oneida Lake, NY, is an area with prominent wood remains. This study explores a collection of 52 logs encased in organic-rich deposits exposed by bank erosion at three locations along Fish Creek near Sylvan Beach, NY, with respect to radiocarbon ages, species, and the crossdating potential of tree rings. Radiocarbon ages and successful tree-ring crossdating document what we interpret as seven major hydrologic episodes ca. 10 ka (i.e. ca. 10,000 cal yr BP), 7.4 ka, 6.8 ka, 6.4 ka, 5.5 ka, 3.1 ka and 2.2 ka cal BP, during which channel aggradation and tree burial may have been associated with abruptly increased flood frequency and/or high water tables. This pilot study establishes four floating tree-ring records: [1] early Holocene hemlock (Tsuga), mid-Holocene [2] walnut (Juglans sp.) and [3] sycamore (Platanus), and [4] late Holocene elm (Ulmus sp.), with sample sizes of 8-14 series of 55-135 years length. Despite the complexity of distribution of radiocarbon ages at each site, the wealth of well-preserved wood demonstrates great promise for understanding the paleoflood history of the Oneida watershed by documenting the magnitude, location, and timing of floods. Further additional systematic sampling can add and strengthen tree-ring dating and tree-ring based flood records, confirm results, and contribute to the Holocene hydrological history of the region. Copyright © 2015 by The Tree-Ring Society.
    • Trimming and Planing Rough-Cut Wood for Efficient Dendrochronological Sample Preparation and Storage

      Minor, J.J.; Arizpe, A.H. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-07)
      Wood samples larger than increment cores collected for tree-ring studies are often obtained using chainsaws and, less frequently, 2-person crosscut saws. Saw marks on cross-sectional wood samples can be quite deep and uneven, and sanding rough-cut wood cross-sections is inefficient in terms of processing time and wear on sanding belts. Trimming rough-cut wood samples with a band saw or treating with a surface planer creates a smoother initial surface for sample sanding and polishing. Sample trimming with a band saw or surface planer is also useful for post-analysis archiving and wood storage, when excess wood can be removed and smaller samples entered into storage. Band saw and surface planer safety techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 by The Tree-Ring Society.