• Perception and management of spatio-temporal pasture heterogeneity by hungarian herders

      Molnár Z. (Society for Range Management, 2014-03)
      The goal of our study was to document traditional steppe herders' perception and management of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage availability of their seminatural pastures. Ninety-two herders living in the Hortobágy saline steppe, Hungary, Central Europe were interviewed, and participatory observation was used to understand herding and habitat improvement techniques. The herders recognized 47-66 habitat types (mostly grassland types), and listed at least 90 plant species important for grazing. They have a nuanced knowledge of the intra- and interannual variations of forage quality and quantity. They perform very strong and well-planned herding practices. Daily spatial pattern of grazing is, however, often opportunistic and flexible, but has a more-or-less regular year-round cycle, in which marshes and stubbles provide forage in drought periods. Reciprocal learning and continuous communication between the herder and his driving dogs and livestock strongly influence grazing pattern. Herders manage and improve different habitats of their pastures differently by traditional and, less frequently, modern methods. The main method is grazing supplemented by manuring, burning, and removal of spiny weeds. Traditional knowledge of herders could be effectively used in evidence-based conservation and pasture management of European saline steppes; e.g., the reintroduction of some old herding techniques (opportunistic pasture use, grazing of marshes, and burning). Herders' knowledge could also help the fine-tuning and local adaptation of European agri-environmental regulations (e.g., how to balance subsidies for hay-making and grazing in saline steppes). More research is needed, however, on the ecological effects of different traditional grazing techniques, e.g., rotation, manuring, and burning. In general a more complex socio-ecological understanding of the internal and external factors affecting adaptation of the Hortobágy herders to changing environment, society, and European Union policies is needed. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Root biomass and distribution patterns in a semi-arid mesquite savanna: Responses to long-term rainfall manipulation

      Ansley, R. J.; Boutton, T. W.; Jacoby, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 2014-03)
      Expansion of woody plants in North American grasslands and savannas is facilitated in part by root system adaptation to climatic extremes. Climatic extremes are predicted to become more common with global climate change and, as such, may accelerate woody expansion and/or infilling rates. We quantified root biomass and distribution patterns of the invasive woody legume, honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and associated grasses following a long-term rainfall manipulation experiment in a mixed grass savanna in the southern Great Plains (United States). Root systems of mature trees were containerized with vertical barriers installed to a depth of 270 cm, and soil moisture was manipulated with irrigation (Irrigated) or rainout shelters (Rainout). Other treatments included containerized, precipitation-only (Control) and noncontainerized, precipitation-only (Natural) trees. After 4 yr of treatment, soil cores to 270 cm depth were obtained, and mesquite root length density (RLD) and root mass, and grass root mass were quantified. Mesquite in the Rainout treatment increased coarse-root (->-2 mm diameter) RLD and root mass at soil depths between 90 cm and 270 cm. In contrast, mesquite in the Irrigated treatment increased fine-root (-<-2 mm diameter) RLD and root mass between 30 cm and 270 cm depths, but did not increase total root mass (fine-+-coarse) compared to the Control. Mesquite root-to-shoot mass ratio was 2.8 to 4.6 times greater in Rainout than the other treatments. Leaf water stress was greatest in the Rainout treatment in the first year, but not in subsequent years, possibly the result of increased root growth. Leaf water use efficiency was lowest in the Irrigated treatment. The increase in coarse root growth during extended drought substantially increased mesquite belowground biomass and suggests an important mechanism by which woody plant encroachment into grasslands may alter below ground carbon stocks under climate change scenarios predicted for this region. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Vegetation responses to Pinyon-Juniper treatments in Eastern Nevada

      Provencher, L.; Thompson, J. (Society for Range Management, 2014-03)
      Comparisons of tree-removal treatments to reduce the cover of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frém.) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma Torr. Little), and subsequently increase native herbaceous cover in black sagebrush (Artemisia nova A. Nelson), are needed to identify most cost-effective methods. Two adjacent vegetation management experiments were initiated in 2006 and monitored until 2010 in eastern Nevada to compare the costs and efficacy of various tree reduction methods. One Department of Energy (DOE) experiment compared a control to five treatments: bulldozing imitating chaining ($205-·-ha-1), lop-pile-burn ($2-309-·-ha-1), lop-and-scatter ($1-297- ·-ha-1), feller-buncher and chipper ($4-940-·- ha-1), and mastication ($1-136-·-ha-1), whereas a second Bureau of Land Management (BLM) experiment compared one-way chaining ($205-·-ha-1) to a control treatment. Chaining and bulldozing resulted in the least reduction of tree cover among the treatments. In the DOE experiment, forb cover only decreased in the mastication treatment. Litter increased in all methods. Slash cover was lowest in the control and lop-pile-burn treatments, intermediate in the feller-buncher and mastication treatments, and highest in the bulldozing and lop-and-scatter treatments. By 2010, forb cover and the combined cover of dead shrubs and trees were increased and decreased, respectively, by chaining in the BLM experiment. Nonnative annual grass and biotic crust were absent or uncommon before and after treatment implementation. In both experiments, tree removal resulted in a nonsignificant increase in perennial grass cover even 4 yr post-treatment. An ecological return-on-investment (EROI) metric was developed to compare perennial grass cover and tree cover per unit area cost of each active treatment. By 2010, chaining or bulldozing, followed by mastication, showed the highest EROI for improving perennial grass and decreasing tree cover. Mastication is recommended for restoration of smaller tree-encroached areas, whereas land managers should reconsider smooth chaining, despite its negative perceptions, for rapid and cost-efficient restoration of large landscapes obligates. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.