The effect of salinity on Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei infection in Penaeus vannamei under experimental conditions
AuthorAranguren Caro, L. F.
De Belder, K.
Mai, H. N.
Dhar, A. K.
AffiliationAquaculture Pathology Laboratory, School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The University of Arizona
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd
CitationCaro, L. A., Alghamdi, F., De Belder, K., Lin, J., Mai, H. N., Millabas, J., ... & Dhar, A. K. (2021). The effect of salinity on enterocytozoon hepatopenaei infection in Penaeus vannamei under experimental conditions. BMC Veterinary Research, 17(1), 1-8.
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Rights© The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
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AbstractBackground: Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an enteric pathogen that affects Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon shrimp in many SE Asian countries. In the western hemisphere, EHP was reported for the first time in 2016 in farmed P. vannamei in Venezuela. Anecdotal evidence suggests that EHP is more prevalent in grow-out ponds where the salinity is high (> 15 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to grow-out ponds with low salinities (< 5 ppt). Considering that P. vannamei is an euryhaline species, we were interested in knowing if EHP can propagate in P. vannamei in low salinities. Results: In this study, we described an experimental infection using fecal strings as a source inoculum. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) P. vannamei were maintained at three different salinities (2 ppt, 15 ppt, and 30 ppt) while continuously challenged using feces from known EHP-infected P. vannamei over a period of 3 weeks. The fecal strings, used as a source of EHP inocula in the challenges, was sufficient to elicit an infection in shrimp maintained at the three salinities. The infectivity of EHP in shrimp reared at 2 ppt, 15 ppt, and 30 ppt salinities was confirmed by PCR and histopathology. The prevalence and the severity of the EHP infection was higher at 30 ppt than at 2 ppt and 15 ppt. Conclusion: The data suggests that fecal strings are a reliable source of EHP inoculum to conduct experimental challenges via the fecal-oral route. An EHP infection can occur at a salinity as low as 2 ppt, however, the prevalence and the severity of the EHP infection is higher at a salinity of 30 ppt. © 2021, The Author(s).
NoteOpen access journal
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsMinistry of Environment, water and Agriculture
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.