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dc.contributor.authorYang, B.
dc.contributor.authorBarbati, J.L.
dc.contributor.authorChoi, Y.
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-22T00:46:35Z
dc.date.available2021-07-22T00:46:35Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.citationYang, B., Barbati, J. L., & Choi, Y. (2021). Will e-cigarette modified risk messages with a nicotine warning polarize smokers’ beliefs about the efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes in reducing smoking-related risks? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(11).
dc.identifier.issn1661-7827
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijerph18116094
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/660950
dc.description.abstractIn the U.S., e-cigarette companies can apply for permission to use reduced or modified risk messages (MRMs) in their marketing materials. Because e-cigarette marketing materials should have a nicotine addictiveness warning, MRMs and a nicotine warning could appear together—resulting in a conflicting message. When reading a conflicting message, individuals assimilate evidence supporting their pre-existing beliefs and eventually develop stronger beliefs, diverging more from those with different pre-existing beliefs (i.e., polarization). This study examined if exposure to e-cigarette MRMs with a nicotine warning polarizes smokers’ initially opposing beliefs about the efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes in reducing smoking-related risks, and if this polarization depends on individuals’ need for closure. An online experiment randomized 761 U.S. adult smokers to either three MRMs with a nicotine warning or three control messages. People reported their perceived efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes at pre-and posttest and need for closure at pretest. Linear regression showed no polarization effects. Nonetheless, need for closure and pretest efficacy beliefs influenced message response: MRMs with a nicotine warning only enhanced efficacy beliefs of smokers with low pretest efficacy beliefs and low need for closure. Evaluation of e-cigarette mixed communication should consider individuals’ motivational and cognitive differences. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectE-cigarettes
dc.subjectModified risk claims
dc.subjectNeed for closure
dc.subjectNicotine addictiveness warning
dc.subjectOpinion polarization
dc.titleWill e-cigarette modified risk messages with a nicotine warning polarize smokers’ beliefs about the efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes in reducing smoking-related risks?
dc.typeArticle
dc.typetext
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Communication, University of Arizona
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
dc.description.noteOpen access journal
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.
dc.eprint.versionFinal published version
dc.source.journaltitleInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
refterms.dateFOA2021-07-22T00:46:35Z


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Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).