AffiliationDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Arizona
MetadataShow full item record
CitationKennedy, K. E. R., & Grandner, M. A. (2021). Sleep, Dreams, and Nightmares During the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Health Promotion.
Rights© The Author(s) 2021.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has affected the sleep and dreams of many individuals. Some have experienced improvements, while others have had more complaints. The changes to daily life such as working from home and spending more time indoors in confinement may have disturbed the circadian rhythms of some individuals. There were many reports of a shift towards a later bedtime during the pandemic, with several studies showing that in general, females experienced worse sleep than males, including more nighttime awakenings and nightmares. Increased dream and nightmare frequency during the pandemic has been shown in multiple studies. It has been postulated that because dreams are often guided by the dominant emotional state, that dreams and nightmares related to pandemic themes are a result of specific stressors related to COVID-19. Those experiencing unwanted sleep disturbances and nightmares could stand to benefit from mindfulness and relaxation practices that can ease stress and anxiety before bedtime. Striving to maintain a regular sleep schedule and enhance exposure to daylight–particularly during the first half of the day–may also be helpful.
VersionFinal accepted manuscript