Quantification and Analysis of Micro-Level Activities Data from Children Aged 1–12 Years Old for Use in the Assessments of Exposure to Recycled Tire on Turf and Playgrounds
AffiliationMel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona
Center for Biomedical Informatics and Biostatistics, University of Arizona
Micro-level activity time series
Recycled tire crumb rubber
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CitationLopez-Galvez, N., Claude, J., Wong, P., Bradman, A., Hyland, C., Castorina, R., Canales, R. A., Billheimer, D., Torabzadeh, E., Leckie, J. O., & Beamer, P. I. (2022). Quantification and Analysis of Micro-Level Activities Data from Children Aged 1–12 Years Old for Use in the Assessments of Exposure to Recycled Tire on Turf and Playgrounds. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
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AbstractBackground: There are growing health concerns about exposure to toxicants released from recycled tire rubber, which is commonly used in synthetic turf and playground mats. To better estimate children’s exposure and risk from recycled tire rubber used in synthetic turf and playground mats, there is a need to collect detailed accurate information on mouthing activity and dermal contact behaviors. The objective of this study was to quantify and analyze micro-level activity time series (MLATS) data from children aged 1–12 years old while playing (non-sport-related games) at turf-like locations and playgrounds. Another objective was to estimate the incidental ingestion rate of rubber crumb among children. Methods: Hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration, and median contact duration with different objects were calculated for children playing on turf (i.e., parks, lawns, and gardens) (n = 56) and for children playing on playground structures (n = 24). Statistically significant differences between males and females as well as children’s age groups were evaluated. The daily incidental ingestion rate of rubber crumb was calculated. Results: For children playing on turf, there were significant differences between younger (1–6 y) and older (7–12 y) children for the mouthing median duration with non-dietary objects and all objects. For children playing on playground structures, we found significant mouthing frequency differences between younger (1–6 y) and older children (7–12 y) with all objects, and for mouthing median duration with non-dietary objects. There were no significant differences between males and females playing on artificial turf-like surfaces or playground mats. Our estimated mean incidental ingestion rate was 0.08, 0.07, and 0.08 g rubber crumb/day for children <2, 2–6, and 6–11 years old, respectively. Discussion: our results suggest that age and contact duration should be considered in risk assessment models to evaluate mouthing activities when children are playing on artificial turf surfaces or playground mats. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).