Long horns protect Hestina japonica butterfly larvae from their natural enemies
AffiliationDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona
MetadataShow full item record
CitationKandori, I., Hiramatsu, M., Soda, M., Nakashima, S., Funami, S., Yokoi, T., Tsuchihara, K., & Papaj, D. R. (2022). Long horns protect Hestina japonica butterfly larvae from their natural enemies. Scientific Reports.
RightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractAnimals sometimes have prominent projections on or near their heads serving diverse functions such as male combat, mate attraction, digging, capturing prey, sensing or defence against predators. Some butterfly larvae possess a pair of long frontal projections; however, the function of those projections is not well known. Hestina japonica butterfly larvae have a pair of long hard projections on their heads (i.e., horns). Here we hypothesized that they use these horns to protect themselves from natural enemies (i.e., predators and parasitoids). Field surveys revealed that the primary natural enemies of H. japonica larvae were Polistes wasps. Cage experiments revealed that larvae with horns intact and larvae with horns removed and fitted with horns of other individuals succeeded in defending themselves against attacks of Polistes wasps significantly more often than larvae with horns removed. We discuss that the horns counter the paper wasps' hunting strategy of first biting the larvae's 'necks' and note that horns evolved repeatedly only within the Nymphalidae in a phylogeny of the Lepidoptera. This is the first demonstration that arthropods use head projections for physical defence against predators. © 2022. The Author(s).
NoteOpen access journal
VersionFinal published version
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Long Frontal Projections Help Battus philenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) Larvae Find Host Plants.
- Authors: Kandori I, Tsuchihara K, Suzuki TA, Yokoi T, Papaj DR
- Issue date: 2015
- Predatory behavior of Polistes dominulus wasps in response to cardenolides and glucosinolates in Pieris napi caterpillars.
- Authors: Rayor LS, Mooney LJ, Renwick JA
- Issue date: 2007 Jun
- To be in time: egg deposition enhances plant-mediated detection of young caterpillars by parasitoids.
- Authors: Pashalidou FG, Gols R, Berkhout BW, Weldegergis BT, van Loon JJ, Dicke M, Fatouros NE
- Issue date: 2015 Feb
- Invasive paper wasp turns urban pollinator gardens into ecological traps for monarch butterfly larvae.
- Authors: Baker AM, Potter DA
- Issue date: 2020 Jun 12
- Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits.
- Authors: Vallin A, Jakobsson S, Lind J, Wiklund C
- Issue date: 2005 Jun 22